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Military Terms and Definitions

mach number — The ratio of the velocity of a body to that of sound in the surrounding medium.

magnetic bearing — See bearing.

magnetic circuit — See magnetic mine.

magnetic compass — (*) An instrument containing a freely suspended magnetic element
which displays the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field
at the point of observation.

magnetic declination — (*) The angle between the magnetic and geographical meridians
at any place, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic
north from true north. In nautical and aeronautical navigation, the term magnetic
variation is used instead of magnetic declination and the angle is termed variation of the
compass or magnetic variation. Magnetic declination is not otherwise synonymous
with magnetic variation which refers to regular or irregular change with time of the
magnetic declination, dip, or intensity. See also magnetic variation.

magnetic equator — (*) A line drawn on a map or chart connecting all points at which the
magnetic inclination (dip) is zero for a specified epoch. Also called aclinic line.

magnetic mine — A mine which responds to the magnetic field of a target. (JP 3-15)

magnetic minehunting — The process of using magnetic detectors to determine the
presence of mines or minelike objects.

magnetic north — (*) The direction indicated by the north seeking pole of a freely
suspended magnetic needle, influenced only by the Earth’s magnetic field.

magnetic tape — A tape or ribbon of any material impregnated or coated with magnetic or
other material on which information may be placed in the form of magnetically
polarized spots.

magnetic variation — (*) 1. In navigation, at a given place and time, the horizontal angle
between the true north and magnetic north measured east or west according to whether
magnetic north lies east or west of true north. See also magnetic declination. 2. In
cartography, the annual change in direction of the horizontal component of the Earth’s
magnetic field.

mail embargo — A temporary shutdown or redirection of mail flow to or from a specific
location. (JP 1-0)

main airfield — (*) An airfield planned for permanent occupation in peacetime, also
suitable for use in wartime and having sufficient operational facilities for full use of its
combat potential. See also airfield; departure airfield; diversion airfield;
redeployment airfield.

main armament — The request of the observer or spotter to obtain fire from the largest
guns installed on the fire support ship.

main attack — (*) The principal attack or effort into which the commander throws the full
weight of the offensive power at his disposal. An attack directed against the chief
objective of the campaign, major operation, or battle.

main battle area — That portion of the battlefield in which the decisive battle is fought to
defeat the enemy. For any particular command, the main battle area extends rearward
from the forward edge of the battle area to the rear boundary of the command’s
subordinate units.

main convoy — (*) The convoy as a whole which sails from the convoy assembly
port/anchorage to its destination. It may be supplemented by joiners or joiner convoys,
and leavers or leaver convoys may break off.

main deck — The highest deck running the full length of a vessel (except for an aircraft
carrier’s hanger deck). See also watercraft. (JP 4-01.6)

main detonating line — (*) In demolition, a line of detonating cord used to transmit the
detonation wave to two or more branches.

main line of resistance — A line at the forward edge of the battle position, designated for
the purpose of coordinating the fire of all units and supporting weapons, including air
and naval gunfire. It defines the forward limits of a series of mutually supporting
defensive areas, but it does not include the areas occupied or used by covering or
screening forces.

main operating base — A facility outside the United States and US territories with
permanently stationed operating forces and robust infrastructure. Main operating bases
are characterized by command and control structures, enduring family support
facilities, and strengthened force protection measures. Also called MOB. See also
cooperative security location; forward operating site. (CJCS CM-0007-05)

main operations base — In special operations, a base established by a joint force special
operations component commander or a subordinate special operations component
commander in friendly territory to provide sustained command and control,
administration, and logistic support to special operations activities in designated areas.
Also called MOB. See also advanced operations base; forward operations base.
(JP 3-05.1)

main supply route — The route or routes designated within an operational area upon which
the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations. Also called MSR.

maintenance area — A general locality in which are grouped a number of maintenance
activities for the purpose of retaining or restoring materiel to a serviceable condition.

maintenance engineering — The application of techniques, engineering skills, and effort,
organized to ensure that the design and development of weapon systems and equipment
provide adequately for their effective and economical maintenance.

maintenance (materiel) — 1. All action taken to retain materiel in a serviceable condition
or to restore it to serviceability. It includes inspection, testing, servicing, classification
as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation. 2. All supply and repair action
taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission. 3. The routine recurring
work required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure, ground facility, utility
system, or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used at its
original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose.

maintenance status — 1. A nonoperating condition, deliberately imposed, with adequate
personnel to maintain and preserve installations, materiel, and facilities in such a
condition that they may be readily restored to operable condition in a minimum time by
the assignment of additional personnel and without extensive repair or overhaul. 2.
That condition of materiel that is in fact, or is administratively classified as,
unserviceable, pending completion of required servicing or repairs. 3. A condition of
materiel readiness that reports the level of operational readiness for a piece of

major combat element — Those organizations and units described in the Joint Strategic
Capabilities Plan that directly produce combat capability. The size of the element
varies by Service, force capability, and the total number of such elements available.
Examples are Army divisions and separate brigades, Air Force squadrons, Navy task
forces, and Marine expeditionary forces. See also major force.

major disaster — See domestic emergencies.
major fleet — A principal, permanent subdivision of the operating forces of the Navy with
certain supporting shore activities. Presently there are two such fleets: the Pacific Fleet
and the Atlantic Fleet. See also fleet.

major force — A military organization comprised of major combat elements and associated
combat support, combat service support, and sustainment increments. The major force
is capable of sustained military operations in response to plan employment
requirements. See also major combat element.

major nuclear power — (*) Any nation that possesses a nuclear striking force capable of
posing a serious threat to every other nation.

major operation — A series of tactical actions (battles, engagements, strikes) conducted by
combat forces of a single or several Services, coordinated in time and place, to achieve
strategic or operational objectives in an operational area. These actions are conducted
simultaneously or sequentially in accordance with a common plan and are controlled by
a single commander. For noncombat operations, a reference to the relative size and
scope of a military operation. See also operation. (JP 3-0)

major weapon system — One of a limited number of systems or subsystems that for
reasons of military urgency, criticality, or resource requirements, is determined by the
Department of Defense as being vital to the national interest.

make safe — One or more actions necessary to prevent or interrupt complete function of
the system (traditionally synonymous with “dearm,” “disarm,” and “disable”). Among
the necessary actions are: (1) install (safety devices such as pins or locks); (2)
disconnect (hoses, linkages, batteries); (3) bleed (accumulators, reservoirs); (4) remove
(explosive devices such as initiators, fuzes, detonators); and (5) intervene (as in
welding, lockwiring).

management and control system (mobility) — Those elements of organizations and/or
activities that are part of, or are closely related to, the mobility system, and which
authorize requirements to be moved, to obtain and allocate lift resources, or to direct
the operation of linklift vehicles.

maneuver — 1. A movement to place ships, aircraft, or land forces in a position of
advantage over the enemy. 2. A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the
ground, or on a map in imitation of war. 3. The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle,
to cause it to perform desired movements. 4. Employment of forces in the operational
area through movement in combination with fires to achieve a position of advantage in
respect to the enemy in order to accomplish the mission. See also mission; operation.
(JP 3-0)

maneuverable reentry vehicle — A reentry vehicle capable of performing preplanned
flight maneuvers during the reentry phase. See also multiple independently
targetable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

manifest — A document specifying in detail the passengers or items carried for a specific

manipulative electromagnetic deception — See electromagnetic deception.

man portable — Capable of being carried by one man. Specifically, the term may be used
to qualify: 1. Items designed to be carried as an integral part of individual, crewserved,
or team equipment of the dismounted soldier in conjunction with assigned
duties. Upper weight limit: approximately 14 kilograms (31 pounds.) 2. In land
warfare, equipment which can be carried by one man over long distance without
serious degradation of the performance of normal duties.

manpower — See manpower requirements; manpower resources.

manpower management — (*) The means of manpower control to ensure the most
efficient and economical use of available manpower.

manpower management survey — (*) Systematic evaluation of a functional area,
utilizing expert knowledge, manpower scaling guides, experience, and other practical
considerations in determining the validity and managerial efficiency of the function’s
present or proposed manpower establishment.

manpower requirements — Human resources needed to accomplish specified work loads
of organizations.

manpower resources — Human resources available to the Services that can be applied
against manpower requirements.

man space — The space and weight factor used to determine the combat capacity of
vehicles, craft, and transport aircraft, based on the requirements of one person with
individual equipment. The person is assumed to weigh between 222-250 pounds and to
occupy 13.5 cubic feet of space. See also boat space.

man transportable — Items that are usually transported on wheeled, tracked, or air
vehicles, but have integral provisions to allow periodic handling by one or more
individuals for limited distances (100-500 meters). Upper weight limit: approximately
65 pounds per individual.

map — (*) A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale,
of natural or artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the Earth or other
planetary body. The features are positioned relative to a coordinate reference system.
See also administrative map; chart index; chart series; chart sheet; controlled
map; general map; large-scale map; line-route map; map chart; map index; map
series; map sheet; medium-scale map; operation map; planimetric map; situation
map; small-scale map; strategic map; tactical map; topographic map; traffic
circulation map.

map chart — A representation of a land-sea area, using the characteristics of a map to
represent the land area and the characteristics of a chart to represent the sea area, with
such special characteristics as to make the map-chart most useful in military operations,
particularly amphibious operations. See also map.

map convergence — (*) The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on a map
or chart. See also convergence.

map exercise — An exercise in which a series of military situations is stated and solved on
a map.

map index — (*) Graphic key primarily designed to give the relationship between sheets
of a series, their coverage, availability, and further information on the series. See also

mapping camera — See air cartographic camera.

map reference — (*) A means of identifying a point on the surface of the Earth by relating
it to information appearing on a map, generally the graticule or grid.

map reference code — (*) A code used primarily for encoding grid coordinates and other
information pertaining to maps. This code may be used for other purposes where the
encryption of numerals is required.

map series — (*) A group of maps or charts usually having the same scale and
cartographic specifications, and with each sheet appropriately identified by producing
agency as belonging to the same series.

map sheet — (*) An individual map or chart either complete in itself or part of a series.
See also map.

margin — (*) In cartography, the area of a map or chart lying outside the border

marginal data — (*) All explanatory information given in the margin of a map or chart
which clarifies, defines, illustrates, and/or supplements the graphic portion of the sheet.

marginal information — See marginal data.

Marine air command and control system — A system that provides the aviation combat
element commander with the means to command, coordinate, and control all air
operations within an assigned sector and to coordinate air operations with other
Services. It is composed of command and control agencies with communicationselectronics
equipment that incorporates a capability from manual through
semiautomatic control. Also called MACCS. See also direct air support center;
tactical air operations center. (JP 3-09.3)

Marine air-ground task force — The Marine Corps principal organization for all missions
across the range of military operations, composed of forces task-organized under a
single commander capable of responding rapidly to a contingency anywhere in the
world. The types of forces in the Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) are
functionally grouped into four core elements: a command element, an aviation combat
element, a ground combat element, and a combat service support element. The four
core elements are categories of forces, not formal commands. The basic structure of
the MAGTF never varies, though the number, size, and type of Marine Corps units
comprising each of its four elements will always be mission dependent. The flexibility
of the organizational structure allows for one or more subordinate MAGTFs to be
assigned. Also called MAGTF. See also aviation combat element; combat service
support element; command element; ground combat element; Marine
expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary
unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

Marine base — A base for support of Marine ground forces, consisting of activities or
facilities for which the Marine Corps has operating responsibilities, together with
interior lines of communications and the minimum surrounding area necessary for local
security. (Normally, not greater than an area of 20 square miles.) See also base

Marine Corps special operations forces — Those Active Component Marine Corps
forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained,
and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called MARSOF.
(JP 3-05.1)

Marine division and wing team — A Marine Corps air-ground team consisting of one
division and one aircraft wing, together with their normal reinforcements.

marine environment — The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, and other major water bodies,
including their surface interface and interaction, with the atmosphere and with the land
seaward of the mean high water mark.

Marine expeditionary brigade — A Marine air-ground task force that is constructed
around a reinforced infantry regiment, a composite Marine aircraft group, and a combat
logistics regiment. The Marine expeditionary brigade, commanded by a general
officer, is task-organized to meet the requirements of a specific situation. It can
function as part of a joint task force, as the lead echelon of the Marine expeditionary
force, or alone. It varies in size and composition, and is larger than a Marine
expeditionary unit but smaller than a Marine expeditionary force. The Marine
expeditionary brigade is capable of conducting missions across the full range of
military operations. Also called MEB. See also brigade; Marine air-ground task
force; Marine expeditionary force. (JP 3-18)

Marine expeditionary force — The largest Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) and the
Marine Corps principal warfighting organization, particularly for larger crises or
contingencies. It is task-organized around a permanent command element and normally
contains one or more Marine divisions, Marine aircraft wings, and Marine force service
support groups. The Marine expeditionary force is capable of missions across the range
of military operations, including amphibious assault and sustained operations ashore in
any environment. It can operate from a sea base, a land base, or both. Also called
MEF. See also aviation combat element; combat service support element;
command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force;
Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special
purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

Marine expeditionary force (forward) — A designated lead echelon of a Marine
expeditionary force (MEF), task-organized to meet the requirements of a specific
situation. A Marine expeditionary force (forward) varies in size and composition, and
may be commanded by the MEF commander personally or by another designated
commander. It may be tasked with preparing for the subsequent arrival of the rest of the
MEF/joint/multinational forces, and/or the conduct of other specified tasks, at the
discretion of the MEF commander. A Marine expeditionary force (forward) may also
be a stand-alone Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF), task-organized for a mission
in which an MEF is not required. Also called MEF (FWD). See also aviation
combat element; combat service support element; command element; ground
combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force;
Marine expeditionary unit; Marine expeditionary unit (special operations
capable); special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

Marine expeditionary unit — A Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is
constructed around an infantry battalion reinforced, a helicopter squadron reinforced,
and a task-organized combat service support element. It normally fulfills Marine Corps
forward sea-based deployment requirements. The Marine expeditionary unit provides
an immediate reaction capability for crisis response and is capable of limited combat
operations. Also called MEU. See also aviation combat element; combat service
support element; command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground
task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward);
Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable); special purpose Marine
air-ground task force; task force.

Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) — The Marine Corps standard,
forward-deployed, sea-based expeditionary organization. The Marine expeditionary
unit (special operations capable) (MEU[SOC]) is a Marine expeditionary unit,
augmented with selected personnel and equipment, that is trained and equipped with an
enhanced capability to conduct amphibious operations and a variety of specialized
missions of limited scope and duration. These capabilities include specialized
demolition, clandestine reconnaissance and surveillance, raids, in-extremis hostage
recovery, and enabling operations for follow-on forces. The MEU(SOC) is not a
special operations force but, when directed by the Secretary of Defense, the combatant
commander, and/or other operational commander, may conduct limited special
operations in extremis, when other forces are inappropriate or unavailable. Also called
MEU(SOC). See also aviation combat element; combat service support element;
command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force;
Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine
expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

Marine Logistics Command — The US Marines may employ the concept of the Marine
Logistics Command (MLC) in major regional contingencies to provide operational
logistic support, which will include arrival and assembly operations. The combat
service support operations center will be the MLC’s primary combat service support
coordination center for units undergoing arrival and assembly. Also called MLC. See
also combat service support operations center.

Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force — The Maritime Administration
(MARAD) Ready Reserve Force is composed of 68 surge sealift assets owned and
operated by the US Department of Transportation/MARAD and crewed by civilian
mariners. In time of contingency or exercises, the ships are placed under the
operational command of the Military Sealift Command. See also National Defense
Reserve Fleet. (JP 4-01.6)

maritime control area — An area generally similar to a defensive sea area in purpose
except that it may be established any place on the high seas. Maritime control areas are
normally established only in time of war. See also defensive sea area.

maritime defense sector — (*) One of the subdivisions of a coastal area.

maritime domain — The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, and the
airspace above these, including the littorals. (JP 3-32)

maritime domain awareness — The effective understanding of anything associated with
the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of
a nation. (JP 3-32)

maritime environment — The complex union and interaction between oceans, seas, bays,
estuaries, and other major water bodies, with the atmosphere and land seaward of the
mean high water mark. (JP 3-59)

maritime forces — Forces that operate on, under, or above the sea to gain or exploit
command of the sea, sea control, or sea denial and/or to project power from the sea.
(JP 3-32)

maritime interception operations — Efforts to monitor, query, and board merchant
vessels in international waters to enforce sanctions against other nations such as those
in support of United Nations Security Council Resolutions and/or prevent the transport
of restricted goods. Also called MIO. (JP 3-0)

maritime power projection — Power projection in and from the maritime environment,
including a broad spectrum of offensive military operations to destroy enemy forces or
logistic support or to prevent enemy forces from approaching within enemy weapons’
range of friendly forces. Maritime power projection may be accomplished by
amphibious assault operations, attack of targets ashore, or support of sea control

maritime pre-positioning force operation — A rapid deployment and assembly of a
Marine expeditionary force in a secure area using a combination of intertheater airlift
and forward-deployed maritime pre-positioning ships. See also Marine expeditionary
force; maritime pre-positioning ships. (JP 4-01.6)

maritime pre-positioning ships — Civilian-crewed, Military Sealift Command-chartered
ships that are organized into three squadrons and are usually forward-deployed. These
ships are loaded with pre-positioned equipment and 30 days of supplies to support three
Marine expeditionary brigades. Also called MPS. See also Navy cargo handling

maritime search and rescue region — The waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United
States; the territories and possessions of the United States (except Canal Zone and the
inland area of Alaska), and designated areas of the high seas. See also search and
rescue region.

maritime special purpose force — A task-organized force formed from elements of a
Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) and naval special warfare forces
that can be quickly tailored to a specific mission. The maritime special purpose force
can execute on short notice a wide variety of missions in a supporting, supported, or
unilateral role. It focuses on operations in a maritime environment and is capable of
operations in conjunction with or in support of special operations forces. The maritime
special purpose force is integral to and directly relies upon the Marine expeditionary
unit (special operations capable) for all combat and combat service support. Also
called MSPF. (JP 3-05)

maritime superiority — That degree of dominance of one force over another that permits
the conduct of maritime operations by the former and its related land, maritime, and air
forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.
(JP 3-32 CH1)

maritime supremacy — That degree of maritime superiority wherein the opposing force is
incapable of effective interference.

marker — (*) 1. A visual or electronic aid used to mark a designated point. 2. In land
mine warfare: See gap marker; intermediate marker; lane marker; row marker;
strip marker. 3. In naval operations, a maritime unit which maintains an immediate
offensive or obstructive capability against a specified target.

marker ship — (*) In an amphibious operation, a ship which takes accurate station on a
designated control point. It may fly identifying flags by day and show lights to seaward
by night.

marking — To maintain contact on a target from such a position that the marking unit has
an immediate offensive capability.

marking error — (*) In naval mine warfare, the distance and bearing of a marker from a

marking fire — (*) Fire placed on a target for the purpose of identification.

marking panel — (*) A sheet of material displayed for visual communication, usually
between friendly units. See also panel code.

married failure — (*) In naval mine warfare, a moored mine lying on the seabed
connected to its sinker from which it has failed to release owing to defective

marshalling — (*) 1. The process by which units participating in an amphibious or
airborne operation group together or assemble when feasible or move to temporary
camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for combat, or
prepare for loading. 2. The process of assembling, holding, and organizing supplies
and/or equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward movement. See
also stage; staging area. (JP 3-17)

marshalling area — A location in the vicinity of a reception terminal or pre-positioned
equipment storage site where arriving unit personnel, equipment, materiel, and
accompanying supplies are reassembled, returned to the control of the unit commander,
and prepared for onward movement. The joint complex commander designating the
location will coordinate the use of the facilities with other allied commands and the
host nation, and will provide life support to the units while in the marshalling area. See
also marshalling. (JP 3-35)

mass — (*) 1. The concentration of combat power. 2. The military formation in which
units are spaced at less than the normal distances and intervals.

mass casualty — Any large number of casualties produced in a relatively short period of
time, usually as the result of a single incident such as a military aircraft accident,
hurricane, flood, earthquake, or armed attack that exceeds local logistic support
capabilities. See also casualty.

massed fire — 1. The fire of the batteries of two or more ships directed against a single
target. 2. Fire from a number of weapons directed at a single point or small area.

master — The commanding officer of a United States Naval Ship, a commercial ship, or a
government-owned general agency agreement ship operated for the Military Sealift
Command by a civilian company to transport Department of Defense cargo. Also
called MA. (JP 3-02.2)

master air attack plan — A plan that contains key information that forms the foundation
of the joint air tasking order. Sometimes referred to as the air employment plan or joint
air tasking order shell. Information that may be found in the plan includes joint force
commander guidance, joint force air component commander guidance, support plans,
component requests, target update requests, availability of capabilities and forces, target
information from target lists, aircraft allocation, etc. Also called MAAP. See also air
attack; target. (JP 3-60)

master film — (*) The earliest generation of imagery (negative or positive) from which
subsequent copies are produced.

master plot — (*) A portion of a map or overlay on which are drawn the outlines of the
areas covered by an air photographic sortie. Latitude and longitude, map, and sortie
information are shown. See also sortie plot.

materials handling — (*) The movement of materials (raw materials, scrap, semifinished,
and finished) to, through, and from productive processes; in warehouses and storage;
and in receiving and shipping areas.

materials handling equipment — Mechanical devices for handling of supplies with greater
ease and economy. Also called MHE. See also materials handling. (JP 3-35)
materiel — All items (including ships, tanks, self-propelled weapons, aircraft, etc., and
related spares, repair parts, and support equipment, but excluding real property,
installations, and utilities) necessary to equip, operate, maintain, and support military
activities without distinction as to its application for administrative or combat purposes.
See also equipment; personal property. (JP 4-0)

materiel cognizance — Denotes responsibility for exercising supply management over
items or categories of materiel.

materiel control — See inventory control.

materiel inventory objective — The quantity of an item required to be on hand and on
order on M-day in order to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain the approved
US force structure (active and reserve) and those Allied forces designated for US
materiel support, through the period prescribed for war materiel planning purposes. It
is the quantity by which the war materiel requirement exceeds the war materiel
procurement capability and the war materiel requirement adjustment. It includes the
M-day force materiel requirement and the war reserve materiel requirement

materiel management — See inventory control.

materiel pipeline — The quantity of an item required in the worldwide supply system to
maintain an uninterrupted replacement flow.

materiel planning — A subset of logistic planning consisting of a four-step process. a.
requirements definition. Requirements for significant items must be calculated at
item level detail (i.e., National Stock Number) to support sustainability planning and
analysis. Requirements include unit roundout, consumption and attrition replacement,
safety stock, and the needs of allies. b. apportionment. Items are apportioned to the
combatant commanders based on a global scenario to avoid sourcing of items to
multiple theaters. The basis for apportionment is the capability provided by unit stocks,
host-nation support, theater pre-positioned war reserve stocks and industrial base, and
continental United States Department of Defense stockpiles and available production.
Item apportionment cannot exceed total capabilities. c. sourcing. Sourcing is the
matching of available capabilities on a given date against item requirements to support
sustainability analysis and the identification of locations to support transportation
planning. Sourcing of any item is done within the combatant commander’s
apportionment. d. documentation. Sourced item requirements and corresponding
shortfalls are major inputs to the combatant commander’s sustainability analysis.
Sourced item requirements are translated into movement requirements and documented
in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System database for transportation
feasibility analysis. Movement requirements for nonsignificant items are estimated in

materiel readiness — The availability of materiel required by a military organization to
support its wartime activities or contingencies, disaster relief (flood, earthquake, etc.),
or other emergencies.

materiel release confirmation — A notification from a shipping or storage activity
advising the originator of a materiel release order of the positive action taken on the
order. It will also be used with appropriate shipment status document identifier codes
as a reply to a followup initiated by the inventory control point.

materiel release order — An order issued by an accountable supply system manager
(usually an inventory control point or accountable depot or stock point) directing a
non-accountable activity (usually a storage site or materiel drop point) within the same
supply distribution complex to release and ship materiel.

materiel requirements — Those quantities of items of equipment and supplies necessary to
equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain a Service, formation, organization, or
unit in the fulfillment of its purposes or tasks during a specified period.

maximum effective range — The maximum distance at which a weapon may be expected
to be accurate and achieve the desired effect.

maximum elevation figure — (*) A figure, shown in each quadrangle bounded by ticked
graticule lines on aeronautical charts, which represents the height in thousands and
hundreds of feet, above mean sea level, of the highest known natural or manmade
feature in that quadrangle, plus suitable factors to allow for inaccuracy and
incompleteness of the topographical heighting information.

maximum enlisted amount — For any month, the sum of: a. the highest rate of basic pay
payable for such month to any enlisted member of the Armed Forces of the United
States at the highest pay grade applicable to enlisted members; and b. in the case of
officers entitled to special pay under Title 37, United States Code, for such month, the
amount of such special pay payable to such officers for such month. (JP 1-0)

maximum landing weight — (*) The maximum gross weight due to design or operational
limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to land.

maximum operating depth — The keel depth that a submarine is not to exceed during
operations. This depth is determined by the submarine’s national naval authority. See
also test depth.

maximum ordinate — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the height of the highest
point in the trajectory of a projectile above the horizontal plane passing through its
origin. Also called vertex height.
maximum permissible concentration — See radioactivity concentration guide.

maximum permissible dose — (*) That radiation dose which a military commander or
other appropriate authority may prescribe as the limiting cumulative radiation dose to
be received over a specific period of time by members of the command, consistent with
current operational military considerations.

maximum range — (*) The greatest distance a weapon can fire without consideration of

maximum sustained speed — (*) In road transport, the highest speed at which a vehicle,
with its rated payload, can be driven for an extended period on a level first-class
highway without sustaining damage.

maximum take-off weight — (*) The maximum gross weight due to design or operational
limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to take off.

mayday — Distress call.

M-day — See times.

M-day force materiel requirement — The quantity of an item required to be on hand and
on order (on M-day minus one day) to equip and provide a materiel pipeline for the
approved peacetime US force structure, both active and reserve.

meaconing — (*) A system of receiving radio beacon signals and rebroadcasting them on
the same frequency to confuse navigation. The meaconing stations cause inaccurate
bearings to be obtained by aircraft or ground stations. (JP 3-13.1)

mean lethal dose — (*) 1. The amount of nuclear irradiation of the whole body which
would be fatal to 50 percent of the exposed personnel in a given period of time. 2. The
dose of chemical agent that would kill 50 percent of exposed, unprotected, and
untreated personnel.

mean line of advance — In naval usage, the direction expected to be made good over a
sustained period.

mean point of burst — See mean point of impact.

mean point of impact — (*) The point whose coordinates are the arithmetic means of the
coordinates of the separate points of impact/burst of a finite number of projectiles fired
or released at the same aiming point under a given set of conditions.

mean sea level — The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide; used
as a reference for elevations. Also called MSL.

means of transport — See mode of transport.

measured mile — (*) In maritime navigation, distance precisely measured and marked,
used by a vessel to calibrate its log.

measurement and signature intelligence — Intelligence obtained by quantitative and
qualitative analysis of data (metric, angle, spatial, wavelength, time dependence,
modulation, plasma, and hydromagnetic) derived from specific technical sensors for the
purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the emitter or sender, and
to facilitate subsequent identification and/or measurement of the same. The detected
feature may be either reflected or emitted. Also called MASINT. See also
intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence. (JP 2-0)

Measurement and Signature Intelligence Requirements System — A system for the
management of theater and national measurement and signature intelligence
(MASINT) collection requirements. It provides automated tools for users in support of
submission, review, and validation of MASINT nominations of requirements to be
tasked for national and Department of Defense MASINT collection, production, and
exploitation resources. Also called MRS. See also measurement and signature
intelligence. (JP 2-01)

measurement ton — The unit of volumetric measurement of equipment associated with
surface-delivered cargo. Measurement tons equal total cubic feet divided by 40
(1MTON = 40 cubic feet). Also called M/T, MT, MTON.

measure of effectiveness — A criterion used to assess changes in system behavior,
capability, or operational environment that is tied to measuring the attainment of an end
state, achievement of an objective, or creation of an effect. Also called MOE. See also
combat assessment; mission. (JP 3-0)

measure of performance — A criterion used to assess friendly actions that is tied to
measuring task accomplishment. Also called MOP. (JP 3-0)

mechanical sweep — (*) In naval mine warfare, any sweep used with the object of
physically contacting the mine or its appendages.

median incapacitating dose — (*) The amount or quantity of chemical agent which when
introduced into the body will incapacitate 50 percent of exposed, unprotected

media pool — A limited number of news media who represent a larger number of news
media organizations for purposes of news gathering and sharing of material during a
specified activity. Pooling is typically used when news media support resources cannot
accommodate a large number of journalists. See also news media representative;
public affairs. (JP 3-61)

medical civil-military operations — All military health-related activities in support of a
joint force commander that establish, enhance, maintain or influence relations between
the joint or multinational force and host nation, multinational governmental and
nongovernmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in
order to facilitate military operations, achieve US operational objectives, and positively
impact the health sector. Also called MCMO. (JP 4-02)

medical contingency file — A web-based database within the Defense Supply Center
Philadelphia’s Readiness Management Application that identifies and manages
Department of Defense medical contingency materiel requirements. (JP 4-02)

medical evacuees — Personnel who are wounded, injured, or ill and must be moved to or
between medical facilities.

medical intelligence — That category of intelligence resulting from collection, evaluation,
analysis, and interpretation of foreign medical, bio-scientific, and environmental
information that is of interest to strategic planning and to military medical planning and
operations for the conservation of the fighting strength of friendly forces and the
formation of assessments of foreign medical capabilities in both military and civilian
sectors. Also called MEDINT. See also intelligence. (JP 2-01)

medical intelligence preparation of the operational environment — A systematic
continuing process that analyzes information on medical and disease threats, enemy
capabilities, terrain, weather, local medical infrastructure, potential humanitarian and
refugee situations, transportation issues, and political, religious and social issues for all
types of operations. Medical intelligence preparation of the operational environment is
a component of the health service support mission analysis process, and the resulting
statistics serves as a basis for developing health service support estimates and plans. It
includes: defining the operational environment, describing the operational environment
effects on health service support operations, evaluating the operational environmental
threats, and determining courses of action to meet actual and potential threats. Also
called MIPOE. (JP 4-02)

medical officer — (*) Physician with officer rank. Also called MO.

medical protocols — Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the
circumstances and limitations under which United States medical forces will initiate
medical care and support to those individuals that are not Department of Defense health
care beneficiaries or designated eligible for care in a military medical treatment facility
by the Secretary of Defense. (JP 4-02)

medical regulating — The actions and coordination necessary to arrange for the movement
of patients through the levels of care. This process matches patients with a medical
treatment facility that has the necessary health service support capabilities and available
bed space. See also health service support; medical treatment facility. (JP 4-02)

medical surveillance — The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of
data derived from instances of medical care or medical evaluation, and the reporting of
population-based information for characterizing and countering threats to a
population’s health, well-being and performance. See also surveillance. (JP 4-02)

medical treatment facility — A facility established for the purpose of furnishing medical
and/or dental care to eligible individuals. Also called MTF.

medium-angle loft bombing — Type of loft bombing wherein weapon release occurs at an
angle between 35 and 75 degrees above the horizontal.

medium artillery — See field artillery.

medium-lot storage — Generally defined as a quantity of material that will require one to
three pallet stacks, stored to maximum height. Thus, the term refers to relatively small
lots as distinguished from definitely large or small lots. See also storage.

medium-range ballistic missile — A ballistic missile with a range capability from about
600 to 1,500 nautical miles.

medium-range bomber aircraft — A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius of
under 1,000 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

medium-range transport aircraft — See transport aircraft.

medium-scale map — A map having a scale larger than 1:600,000 and smaller than
1:75,000. See also map.

meeting engagement — (*) A combat action that occurs when a moving force,
incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place.

megaton weapon — (*) A nuclear weapon, the yield of which is measured in terms of
millions of tons of trinitrotoluene explosive equivalents. See also kiloton weapon;
nominal weapon; subkiloton weapon.

mensuration — The process of measurement of a feature or location on the earth to
determine an absolute latitude, longitude, and elevation. For targeting applications, the
errors inherent in both the source for measurement as well as the measurement
processes must be understood and reported. (JP 3-60)

merchant convoy — (*) A convoy consisting primarily of merchant ships controlled by
the naval control of shipping organization.

merchant intelligence — In intelligence handling, communication instructions for
reporting by merchant vessels of vital intelligence sightings. Also called MERINT.

merchant ship — (*) A vessel engaged in mercantile trade except river craft, estuarial
craft, or craft which operate solely within harbor limits.

merchant ship casualty report — A report by message, or other means, of a casualty to a
merchant ship at sea or in port. Merchant ship casualty reports are sent by the escort
force commander or other appropriate authority to the operational control authority in
whose area the casualty occurred.

merchant ship communications system — (*) A worldwide system of communications to
and from merchant ships using the peacetime commercial organization as a basis but
under operational control authority, with the ability to employ the broadcast mode to
ships when the situation makes radio silence necessary. Also called mercomms

merchant ship control zone — (*) A defined area of sea or ocean inside which it may be
necessary to offer guidance, control, and protection to Allied shipping.

merchant ship reporting and control message system — (*) A worldwide message
system for reporting the movements of and information relating to the control of
merchant ships.

mercomms system — See merchant ship communications system.

message — Any thought or idea expressed briefly in a plain or secret language and prepared
in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication.

message center — See telecommunications center.

message (telecommunications) — Record information expressed in plain or encrypted
language and prepared in a format specified for intended transmission by a
telecommunications system.

meteorological and oceanographic — A term used to convey all meteorological,
oceanographic, and space environmental factors as provided by Services, support
agencies, and other sources. These factors include the whole range of atmospheric
(weather) and oceanographic phenomena, from the sub-bottom of the earth’s oceans up
to the space environment (space weather). Also called METOC. (JP 3-59)

meteorological and oceanographic data — Measurements or observations of
meteorological and oceanographic variables. (JP 3-59)

meteorological and oceanographic environment — The surroundings, which include
conditions, resources, and natural phenomena, in and through which the joint force
operates. The complete environment extends from the sub-bottom of the Earth’s
oceans, through maritime, land areas, airspace, ionosphere, and outward into space.
(JP 3-59)

meteorological and oceanographic operations support community — The collective of
electronically connected, shore-based meteorological and oceanographic production
facilities/centers, theater and/or regional meteorological and oceanographic production
activities. Also called MOSC. See also meteorological and oceanographic. (JP 3-59)

meteorology — The study dealing with the phenomena of the atmosphere including the
physics, chemistry, and dynamics extending to the effects of the atmosphere on the
Earth’s surface and the oceans. (JP 3-59)

microform — (*) A generic term for any form, whether film, video tape, paper, or other
medium, containing miniaturized or otherwise compressed images which cannot be
read without special display devices.

midcourse guidance — The guidance applied to a missile between termination of the boost
phase and the start of the terminal phase of flight.

midcourse phase — That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile between the boost phase
and the terminal phase. See also ballistic trajectory; boost phase; terminal phase.
(JP 3-01)

migrant — A person who (1) belongs to a normally migratory culture who may cross
national boundaries, or (2) has fled his or her native country for economic reasons
rather than fear of political or ethnic persecution. (JP 3-29)

militarily significant fallout — Radioactive contamination capable of inflicting radiation
doses on personnel which may result in a reduction of their combat effectiveness.

Military Affiliate Radio System — A program conducted by the Departments of the
Army, Navy, and Air Force in which amateur radio stations and operators participate in
and contribute to the mission of providing auxiliary and emergency communications on
a local, national, or international basis as an adjunct to normal military
communications. Also called MARS.

military assistance advisory group — A joint Service group, normally under the military
command of a commander of a unified command and representing the Secretary of
Defense, which primarily administers the US military assistance planning and
programming in the host country. Also called MAAG.

Military Assistance Articles and Services List — A Department of Defense publication
listing source, availability, and price of items and services for use by the unified
commands and Military Departments in preparing military assistance plans and

military assistance for civil disturbances — A mission of civil support involving
Department of Defense support, normally based on the direction of the President, to
suppress insurrections, rebellions, and domestic violence, and provide federal
supplemental assistance to the states to maintain law and order. Also called MACDIS.
(DODD 3025.15)

Military Assistance Program — That portion of the US security assistance authorized by
the Foreign Assistance Act of l961, as amended, which provides defense articles and
services to recipients on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis. Also called MAP.

Military Assistance Program training — See international military education and

military assistance to civil authorities — The broad mission of civil support consisting of
the three mission subsets of military support to civil authorities, military support to
civilian law enforcement agencies, and military assistance for civil disturbances. Also
called MACA. (DODD 3025.1)

military capability — The ability to achieve a specified wartime objective (win a war or
battle, destroy a target set). It includes four major components: force structure,
modernization, readiness, and sustainability. a. force structure — Numbers, size, and
composition of the units that comprise US defense forces; e.g., divisions, ships, air
wings. b. modernization — Technical sophistication of forces, units, weapon
systems, and equipments. c. unit readiness — The ability to provide capabilities
required by the combatant commanders to execute their assigned missions. This is
derived from the ability of each unit to deliver the outputs for which it was designed. d.
sustainability — The ability to maintain the necessary level and duration of
operational activity to achieve military objectives. Sustainability is a function of
providing for and maintaining those levels of ready forces, materiel, and consumables
necessary to support military effort. See also readiness.

military characteristics — Those characteristics of equipment upon which depends its
ability to perform desired military functions. Military characteristics include physical
and operational characteristics but not technical characteristics.

military civic action — The use of preponderantly indigenous military forces on projects
useful to the local population at all levels in such fields as education, training, public
works, agriculture, transportation, communications, health, sanitation, and others
contributing to economic and social development, which would also serve to improve
the standing of the military forces with the population. (US forces may at times advise
or engage in military civic actions in overseas areas.) (JP 3-57)

military construction — Any construction, alteration, development, conversion, or
extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation. Also called
MILCON. (JP 3-34)

military container moved via ocean — Commercial or Government owned (or leased)
shipping containers that are moved via ocean transportation without bogey wheels
attached, i.e., lifted on and off the ship. Also called SEAVAN.

military convoy — (*) A land or maritime convoy that is controlled and reported as a
military unit. A maritime convoy can consist of any combination of merchant ships,
auxiliaries, or other military units.

military currency — (*) Currency prepared by a power and declared by its military
commander to be legal tender for use by civilian and/or military personnel as
prescribed in the areas occupied by its forces. It should be of distinctive design to
distinguish it from the official currency of the countries concerned, but may be
denominated in the monetary unit of either.

military damage assessment — An appraisal of the effects of an attack on a nation’s
military forces to determine residual military capability and to support planning for
recovery and reconstitution. See also damage assessment.

military deception — Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military decision
makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, thereby causing
the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the
accomplishment of the friendly mission. Also called MILDEC. See also deception.
(JP 3-13.4)

Military Department — One of the departments within the Department of Defense created
by the National Security Act of 1947, as amended. Also called MILDEP. See also
Department of the Air Force; Department of the Army; Department of the Navy.

military designed vehicle — A vehicle having military characteristics resulting from
military research and development processes, designed primarily for use by forces in
the field in direct connection with, or support of, combat or tactical operations.

military education — The systematic instruction of individuals in subjects that will
enhance their knowledge of the science and art of war. See also military training.

military engagement — Routine contact and interaction between individuals or elements of
the Armed Forces of the United States and those of another nation’s armed forces, or
foreign and domestic civilian authorities or agencies to build trust and confidence, share
information, coordinate mutual activities, and maintain influence. (JP 3-0)

military geographic documentation — Military geographic information that has been
evaluated, processed, summarized, and published.

military geographic information — Information concerning physical aspects, resources,
and artificial features of the terrain that is necessary for planning and operations.

military geography — The specialized field of geography dealing with natural and
manmade physical features that may affect the planning and conduct of military

military government — See civil affairs.
military government ordinance — An enactment on the authority of a military governor
promulgating laws or rules regulating the occupied territory under such control.

military governor — (*) The military commander or other designated person who, in an
occupied territory, exercises supreme authority over the civil population subject to the
laws and usages of war and to any directive received from the commander’s
government or superior.

military grid — (*) Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles and forming
squares; the grid is superimposed on maps, charts, and other similar representations of
the surface of the Earth in an accurate and consistent manner to permit identification of
ground locations with respect to other locations and the computation of direction and
distance to other points. See also military grid reference system.

military grid reference system — (*) A system which uses a standard-scaled grid square,
based on a point of origin on a map projection of the surface of the Earth in an accurate
and consistent manner to permit either position referencing or the computation of
direction and distance between grid positions. Also called MGRS. See also military

military health system — A health system that supports the military mission by fostering,
protecting, sustaining, and restoring health. It also provides the direction, resources,
health care providers, and other means necessary for promoting the health of the
beneficiary population. These include developing and promoting health awareness
issues to educate customers, discovering and resolving environmentally based health
threats, providing health services, including preventive care and problem intervention,
and improving the means and methods for maintaining the health of the beneficiary
population, by constantly evaluating the performance of the health care services
system. (JP 4-02)

military independent — (*) A merchant ship or auxiliary sailed singly but controlled and
reported as a military unit. See also independent.

military intelligence — Intelligence on any foreign military or military-related situation or
activity which is significant to military policymaking or the planning and conduct of
military operations and activities. Also called MI.

Military Intelligence Board — A decision-making forum which formulates Department of
Defense intelligence policy and programming priorities. Also called MIB. See also
intelligence; military intelligence. (JP 2-0)

Military Intelligence Integrated Data System/Integrated Database — An architecture
for improving the manner in which military intelligence is analyzed, stored, and
disseminated. The Integrated Database (IDB) forms the core automated database for
the Military Intelligence Integrated Data System (MIIDS) program and integrates the
data in the installation, order of battle, equipment, and selected electronic warfare and
command, control, and communications files. The IDB is the national-level repository
for the general military intelligence information available to the entire Department of
Defense Intelligence Information System community and maintained by DIA and the
commands. The IDB is kept synchronized by system transactions to disseminate
updates. Also called MIIDS/IDB. See also architecture; military intelligence.
(JP 2-01)

military intervention — The deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations to introduce its
military forces into the course of an existing controversy.

military journalist — A US Service member or Department of Defense civilian employee
providing photographic, print, radio, or television command information for military
internal audiences. See also command information. (JP 3-61)

military land transportation resources — All military-owned transportation resources,
designated for common-user, over the ground, point-to-point use.

military load classification — (*) A standard system in which a route, bridge, or raft is
assigned class number(s) representing the load it can carry. Vehicles are also assigned
number(s) indicating the minimum class of route, bridge, or raft they are authorized to
use. See also route classification.

military necessity — (*) The principle whereby a belligerent has the right to apply any
measures which are required to bring about the successful conclusion of a military
operation and which are not forbidden by the laws of war.

military nuclear power — (*) A nation which has nuclear weapons and the capability for
their employment.

military occupation — A condition in which territory is under the effective control of a
foreign armed force. See also occupied territory; phases of military government.

military options — A range of military force responses that can be projected to accomplish
assigned tasks. Options include one or a combination of the following: civic action,
humanitarian assistance, civil affairs, and other military activities to develop positive
relationships with other countries; confidence building and other measures to reduce
military tensions; military presence; activities to convey threats to adversaries as well as
truth projections; military deceptions and psychological operations; quarantines,
blockades, and harassment operations; raids; intervention operations; armed conflict
involving air, land, maritime, and strategic warfare operations; support for law
enforcement authorities to counter international criminal activities (terrorism, narcotics
trafficking, slavery, and piracy); support for law enforcement authorities to suppress
domestic rebellion; and support for insurgency, counterinsurgency, and civil war in
foreign countries. See also civil affairs; foreign humanitarian assistance; military
civic action. (JP 5-01.3)

military ordinary mail — A special military airlift service for ordinary official mail being
sent to, from, or between overseas areas. Also called MOM.

military performance specification container — A container that meets specific written
standards. Aviation and Troop Command, US Army, procures military performance
specification containers for the Army and will perform like services for other
Department of Defense components on request. Also called MILSPEC container.
(JP 4-01.7)

military post office — A branch of a designated US-based post office such as New York,
San Francisco, Miami, or Seattle established by US Postal Service authority and
operated by one of the Military Services. The term includes Army, Air Force, Navy,
Marine Corps, and established Coast Guard post offices Also called MPO.

military postal clerk — A person of the US Armed Forces officially designated to perform
postal duties.

Military Postal Service — The command, organization, personnel, and facilities
established to provide, through military post offices, a means for the transmission of
mail to and from the Department of Defense, members of the US Armed Forces, and
other authorized agencies and individuals. Also called MPS.

Military Postal Service Agency — The single manager operating agency established to
manage the Military Postal Service. Also called MPSA.

military posture — The military disposition, strength, and condition of readiness as it
affects capabilities.

military requirement — (*) An established need justifying the timely allocation of
resources to achieve a capability to accomplish approved military objectives, missions,
or tasks. Also called operational requirement. See also objective force level.

military resources — Military and civilian personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies
under the control of a Department of Defense component.

Military Sealift Command — A major command of the US Navy reporting to Commander
Fleet Forces Command, and the US Transportation Command’s component command
responsible for designated common-user sealift transportation services to deploy,
employ, sustain, and redeploy US forces on a global basis. Also called MSC. See also
transportation component command. (JP 4-01.2)

Military Sealift Command-controlled ships — Those ships assigned by the Military
Sealift Command (MSC) for a specific operation. They may be MSC nucleus fleet
ships, contract-operated MSC ships, MSC-controlled time or voyage-chartered
commercial ships, or MSC-controlled ships allocated by the Maritime Administration
to MSC to carry out Department of Defense objectives. (JP 3-02)

Military Sealift Command force — The Military Sealift Command force common-user
sealift consists of three subsets: the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force, common-user ocean
transportation, and the special mission support force. These ship classes include
government-owned ships (normally civilian-manned) and ships acquired by Military
Sealift Command charter or allocated from other government agencies. See also
common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command. (JP 4-01.2)

Military Service — A branch of the Armed Forces of the United States, established by act
of Congress, in which persons are appointed, enlisted, or inducted for military service,
and which operates and is administered within a military or executive department. The
Military Services are: the United States Army, the United States Navy, the United
States Air Force, the United States Marine Corps, and the United States Coast Guard.

military source operations — Refers to the collection, from, by and/or via humans, of
foreign and military and military-related intelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

military standard requisitioning and issue procedure — A uniform procedure
established by the Department of Defense for use within the Department of Defense to
govern requisition and issue of materiel within standardized priorities. Also called

military standard transportation and movement procedures — Uniform and standard
transportation data, documentation, and control procedures applicable to all cargo
movements in the Department of Defense transportation system. Also called

military support to civil authorities — A mission of civil support consisting of support for
natural or man-made disasters, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield
explosive consequence management, and other support as required. Also called
MSCA. (DODD 3025.1)

military support to civilian law enforcement agencies — A mission of civil support that
includes support to civilian law enforcement agencies. This includes but is not limited
to: combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, national security special events, and
national critical infrastructure and key asset protection. Also called MSCLEA.
(DODD 3025.1)

military symbol — (*) A graphic sign used, usually on map, display or diagram, to
represent a particular military unit, installation, activity, or other item of military

military technician — A Federal civilian employee providing full-time support to a
National Guard, Reserve, or Active Component organization for administration,
training, and maintenance of the Selected Reserve. Also called MILTECH.
(CJCSM 3150.13)

military traffic — Department of Defense personnel, mail, and cargo to be, or being,

military training — 1. The instruction of personnel to enhance their capacity to perform
specific military functions and tasks. 2. The exercise of one or more military units
conducted to enhance their combat readiness. See also military education.

military van (container) — Military-owned, demountable container, conforming to US and
international standards, operated in a centrally controlled fleet for movement of military
cargo. Also called MILVAN.

MILSPEC container — See military performance specification containers. (JP 4-01.7)

MILVAN — See military van (container).

MILVAN chassis — The compatible chassis to which the military van (container) is
attached by coupling the lower four standard corner fittings of the container to
compatible mounting blocks in the chassis to permit road movement.

mine — 1. In land mine warfare, an explosive or other material, normally encased, designed
to destroy or damage ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or
otherwise incapacitate personnel. It is designed to be detonated by the action of its
victim, by the passage of time, or by controlled means. 2. In naval mine warfare, an
explosive device laid in the water with the intention of damaging or sinking ships or of
deterring shipping from entering an area. See also land mine warfare; mine warfare.
(JP 3-15)

mineable waters — (*) Waters where naval mines of any given type may be effective
against any given target.

mine clearance — (*) The process of removing all mines from a route or area.

mine-cluster — A number of mines (not to exceed five) laid within a two-meter semicircle
of the central mine.

mine countermeasures — All methods for preventing or reducing damage or danger from
mines. Also called MCM. (JP 3-15)

mined area — (*) An area declared dangerous due to the presence or suspected presence of

mine defense — (*) The defense of a position, area, etc., by land or underwater mines. A
mine defense system includes the personnel and equipment needed to plant, operate,
maintain, and protect the minefields that are laid.

mine disposal — The operation by suitably qualified personnel designed to render safe,
neutralize, recover, remove, or destroy mines.

minefield — 1. In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines emplaced with or
without a pattern. 2. In naval warfare, an area of water containing mines laid with or
without a pattern. See also land mine warfare; mine; mine warfare. (JP 3-15)

minefield breaching — (*) In land mine warfare, the process of clearing a lane through a
minefield under tactical conditions. See also minefield lane.

minefield density — In land mine warfare, the average number of mines per meter of
minefield front, or the average number of mines per square meter of minefield. In
naval warfare, the average number of mines per nautical mile.

minefield lane — A marked lane, unmined, or cleared of mines, leading through a

minefield marking — Visible marking of all points required in laying a minefield and
indicating the extent of such minefields.

minefield record — A complete written record of all pertinent information concerning a
minefield, submitted on a standard form by the officer in charge of the laying
operations. (JP 3-15)

minefield report — An oral, electronic, or written communication concerning mining
activities (friendly or enemy) submitted in a standard format by the fastest secure
means available. (JP 3-15)

minehunting — Employment of sensor and neutralization systems, whether air, surface, or
subsurface, to locate and dispose of individual mines. Minehunting is conducted to
eliminate mines in a known field when sweeping is not feasible or desirable, or to
verify the presence or absence of mines in a given area. See also minesweeping.
(JP 3-15)

mine row — (*) A single row of mines or clusters of mines. See also mine strip.
mine spotting — (*) In naval mine warfare, the process of visually observing a mine or

mine strip — (*) In land mine warfare, two parallel mine rows laid simultaneously six
meters or six paces apart. See also mine row.

minesweeping — The technique of clearing mines using either mechanical, explosive, or
influence sweep equipment. Mechanical sweeping removes, disturbs, or otherwise
neutralizes the mine; explosive sweeping causes sympathetic detonations in, damages,
or displaces the mine; and influence sweeping produces either the acoustic and/or
magnetic influence required to detonate the mine. See also minehunting. (JP 3-15)

mine warfare — The strategic, operational, and tactical use of mines and mine
countermeasures. Mine warfare is divided into two basic subdivisions: the laying of
mines to degrade the enemy’s capabilities to wage land, air, and maritime warfare; and
the countering of enemy-laid mines to permit friendly maneuver or use of selected land
or sea areas. Also called MIW. (JP 3-15)

mine warfare chart — (*) A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000 or larger
(preferably 1:25,000 or larger) designed for planning and executing mine warfare
operations, either based on an existing standard nautical chart, or produced to special

mine warfare forces (naval) — Navy forces charged with the strategic, operational, and
tactical use of naval mines and their countermeasures. Such forces are capable of
offensive and defensive measures in connection with laying and clearing mines.

mine warfare group — (*) A task organization of mine warfare units for the conduct of
minelaying and/or mine countermeasures in maritime operations.

minewatching — (*) In naval mine warfare, the mine countermeasures procedure to detect,
record and, if possible, track potential minelayers and to detect, find the position of,
and/or identify mines during the actual minelaying.

mine weapons — (*) The collective term for all weapons which may be used in mine

minimize — A condition wherein normal message and telephone traffic is drastically
reduced in order that messages connected with an actual or simulated emergency shall
not be delayed.

minimum aircraft operating surface — (*) The minimum surface on an airfield which is
essential for the movement of aircraft. It includes the aircraft dispersal areas, the
minimum operating strip, and the taxiways between them. See also minimum
operating strip.

minimum attack altitude — The lowest altitude determined by the tactical use of weapons,
terrain consideration, and weapons effects that permits the safe conduct of an air attack
and/or minimizes effective enemy counteraction.

minimum crossing altitude — The lowest altitude at certain radio fixes at which an aircraft
must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher minimum en route instrument
flight rules altitude.

minimum essential equipment — That part of authorized allowances of Army equipment,
clothing, and supplies needed to preserve the integrity of a unit during movement
without regard to the performance of its combat or service mission. Items common
within this category will normally be carried by or accompany troops to the port and
will be placed aboard the same ships with the troops. As used in movement directives,
minimum essential equipment refers to specific items of both organizational and
individual clothing and equipment.

minimum force — Those minimum actions, including the use of armed force, sufficient to
bring a situation under control or to defend against hostile act or hostile intent. All
actions must cease as soon as the target complies with instructions or ceases hostile
action. The firing of weapons is to be considered as a means of last resort.

minimum nuclear safe distance — (*) The sum of the radius of safety and the buffer

minimum nuclear warning time — (*) The sum of system reaction time and personnel
reaction time.

minimum obstruction clearance altitude — The specified altitude in effect between radio
fixes on very high frequency omnirange airways, off-airway routes, or route segments,
which meets obstruction clearance requirements for the entire route segment, and that
assures acceptable navigational signal coverage only within 22 miles of a very high
frequency omnirange.

minimum operating strip — (*) A runway which meets the minimum requirements for
operating assigned and/or allocated aircraft types on a particular airfield at maximum or
combat gross weight. See also minimum aircraft operating surface.

minimum range — 1. Least range setting of a gun at which the projectile will clear an
obstacle or friendly troops between the gun and the target. 2. Shortest distance to
which a gun can fire from a given position. 3. The range at which a projectile or fuse
will be armed.

minimum reception altitude — The lowest altitude required to receive adequate signals to
determine specific very high frequency omnirange and tactical air navigation fixes.

minimum residual radioactivity weapon — (*) A nuclear weapon designed to have
optimum reduction of unwanted effects from fallout, rainout, and burst site
radioactivity. See also salted weapon.

minimum-risk route — A temporary corridor of defined dimensions recommended for use
by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known hazards to
low-flying aircraft transiting the combat zone. Also called MRR. (JP 3-52)

minimum safe altitude — (*) The altitude below which it is hazardous to fly owing to
presence of high ground or other obstacles.
minor control — See photogrammetric control.

minor installation — In the Air Force, a facility operated by an Active, Reserve, or Guard
unit of at least squadron size that does not otherwise satisfy all the criteria for a major
installation. This category includes Air Force stations; air stations; Air Reserve
stations; and Air Guard stations. Examples of minor installations are Active, Reserve,
or Guard flying operations that are located at civilian-owned airports. See also
installation complex.

minor port — (*) A port having facilities for the discharge of cargo from coasters or
lighters only.

misfire — (*) 1. Failure to fire or explode properly. 2. Failure of a primer or the
propelling charge of a round or projectile to function wholly or in part.

missed approach — (*) An approach which is not completed by landing.

missile assembly-checkout facility — A building, van, or other type structure located near
the operational missile launching location and designed for the final assembly and
checkout of the missile system.

missile control system — (*) A system that serves to maintain attitude stability and to
correct deflections. See also missile guidance system.

missile defense — Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy missiles, or to
nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. (JP 3-01)

missile destruct — (*) Intentional destruction of a missile or similar vehicle for safety or
other reasons.

missile destruct system — (*) A system which, when operated by external command or
preset internal means, destroys the missile or similar vehicle.

missile guidance system — (*) A system which evaluates flight information, correlates it
with target data, determines the desired flight path of a missile, and communicates the
necessary commands to the missile flight control system. See also missile control

missile release line — The line at which an attacking aircraft could launch an air-to-surface
missile against a specific target.

missing — A casualty status for which the United States Code provides statutory guidance
concerning missing members of the Military Services. Excluded are personnel who are
in an absent without leave, deserter, or dropped-from-rolls status. A person declared
missing is categorized as follows. a. beleaguered — The casualty is a member of an
organized element that has been surrounded by a hostile force to prevent escape of its
members. b. besieged — The casualty is a member of an organized element that has
been surrounded by a hostile force, compelling it to surrender. c. captured — The
casualty has been seized as the result of action of an unfriendly military or paramilitary
force in a foreign country. d. detained — The casualty is prevented from proceeding
or is restrained in custody for alleged violation of international law or other reason
claimed by the government or group under which the person is being held. e. interned
— The casualty is definitely known to have been taken into custody of a nonbelligerent
foreign power as the result of and for reasons arising out of any armed conflict in which
the Armed Forces of the United States are engaged. f. missing — The casualty is not
present at his or her duty location due to apparent involuntary reasons and whose
location is unknown. g. missing in action — The casualty is a hostile casualty, other
than the victim of a terrorist activity, who is not present at his or her duty location due
to apparent involuntary reasons and whose location is unknown. Also called MIA.
See also casualty category; casualty status.

missing in action — See missing.

mission — 1. The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be
taken and the reason therefore. 2. In common usage, especially when applied to lower
military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task. 3. The dispatching of
one or more aircraft to accomplish one particular task.

mission assignment — The vehicle used by the Department of Homeland
Security/Emergency Preparedness and Response/Federal Emergency Management
Agency to support federal operations in a Stafford Act major disaster or emergency
declaration that orders immediate, short-term emergency response assistance when an
applicable state or local government is overwhelmed by the event and lacks the
capability to perform, or contract for, the necessary work. (JP 3-28)

mission-capable — Material condition of an aircraft indicating it can perform at least one
and potentially all of its designated missions. Mission-capable is further defined as the
sum of full mission-capable and partial mission-capable. Also called MC. See also
full mission-capable; partial mission-capable; partial mission-capable,
maintenance; partial mission-capable, supply.

mission-essential materiel — 1. That materiel authorized and available to combat, combat
support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces in order to
accomplish their assigned missions. 2. For the purpose of sizing organic industrial
facilities, that Service-designated materiel authorized to combat, combat support,
combat service support, and combat readiness training forces and activities, including
Reserve and National Guard activities, that is required to support approved emergency
and/or war plans, and where the materiel is used to: a. destroy the enemy or the
enemy’s capacity to continue war; b. provide battlefield protection of personnel; c.
communicate under war conditions; d. detect, locate, or maintain surveillance over the
enemy; e. provide combat transportation and support of men and materiel; and f.
support training functions. Mission-essential materiel should also be suitable for
employment under emergency plans to meet the purposes enumerated above.

mission needs statement — A formatted non-system-specific statement containing
operational capability needs and written in broad operational terms. It describes
required operational capabilities and constraints to be studied during the Concept
Exploration and Definition Phase of the Requirements Generation Process. Also called

mission-oriented items — Items for which requirements computations are based upon the
assessment of enemy capabilities expressed as a known or estimated quantity of total
targets to be destroyed. See also combination mission/level of effort-oriented items;
level of effort-oriented items.

mission-oriented protective posture — A flexible system of protection against chemical,
biological, radiological, and nuclear contamination. This posture requires personnel to
wear only that protective clothing and equipment (mission-oriented protective posture
gear) appropriate to the threat level, work rate imposed by the mission, temperature,
and humidity. Also called MOPP. See also mission-oriented protective posture
gear. (JP 3-11)

mission-oriented protective posture gear — Military term for individual protective
equipment including suit, boots, gloves, mask with hood, first aid treatments, and
decontamination kits issued to military members. Also called MOPP gear. See also
decontamination; mission-oriented protective posture. (JP 3-11)

mission review report (photographic interpretation) — An intelligence report containing
information on all targets covered by one photographic sortie.

mission specific data sets — Further densification of global geospatial foundation data.
Information created to support specific operations, operation plans, training, or system
development. Information conforms to established Department of Defense data
specifications. Also called MSDS. See also geospatial information and services.
(JP 2-03)

mission statement — A short sentence or paragraph that describes the organization’s
essential task (or tasks) and purpose — a clear statement of the action to be taken and
the reason for doing so. The mission statement contains the elements of who, what,
when, where, and why, but seldom specifies how. See also mission. (JP 5-0)

mission type order — 1. An order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment
of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters. 2. An order to a unit to
perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished. (JP 3-50)

mixed — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a
spotter or an observer to indicate that the rounds fired resulted in an equal number of air
and impact bursts.

mixed bag — (*) In naval mine warfare, a collection of mines of various types, firing
systems, sensitivities, arming delays and ship counter settings.

mixed minefield — (*) A minefield containing both antitank and antipersonnel mines. See
also minefield.

mobile defense — Defense of an area or position in which maneuver is used with
organization of fire and utilization of terrain to seize the initiative from the enemy.

mobile inshore undersea warfare unit — A Navy surveillance unit that provides seaward
security to joint logistics over-the-shore operations from either a port or harbor
complex or unimproved beach sites. The mobile inshore undersea warfare unit is
equipped with mobile radar, sonar, and communications equipment located within a
mobile van. Also called MIUWU. See also joint logistics over-the-shore
operations. (JP 4-01.6)

mobile mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine designed to be propelled to its proposed
laying position by propulsion equipment like a torpedo. It sinks at the end of its run
and then operates like a mine. See also mine.

mobile security force — A dedicated security force designed to defeat Level I and II threats
on a base and/or base cluster. Also called MSF. (JP 3-10)

mobile support group (naval) — Provides logistic support to ships at an anchorage; in
effect a naval base afloat, although certain of its supporting elements may be located

mobile training team — A team consisting of one or more US military or civilian
personnel sent on temporary duty, often to a foreign nation, to give instruction. The
mission of the team is to train indigenous personnel to operate, maintain, and employ
weapons and support systems, or to develop a self-training capability in a particular
skill. The Secretary of Defense may direct a team to train either military or civilian
indigenous personnel, depending upon host-nation requests. Also called MTT.

mobility — (*) A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from
place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission. (JP 3-17)

Mobility Air Forces — The Mobility Air Forces are comprised of those air components
and Service components that are assigned air mobility forces and/or that routinely
exercise command authority over their operations. Also called MAF.

mobility analysis — An in-depth examination of all aspects of transportation planning in
support of operation plan and operation order development.

mobility corridor — Areas where a force will be canalized due to terrain restrictions. They
allow military forces to capitalize on the principles of mass and speed and are therefore
relatively free of obstacles. (JP 2-01.3)

mobility echelon — A subordinate element of a unit that is scheduled for deployment
separately from the parent unit.

mobility system support resources — Those resources that are required to: a. complement
the airlift and sealift forces; and/or b. perform those work functions directly related to
the origination, processing, or termination of a movement requirement.

mobilization — 1. The act of assembling and organizing national resources to support
national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. See also industrial
mobilization. 2. The process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought
to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all
or part of the Reserve Components as well as assembling and organizing personnel,
supplies, and materiel. Mobilization of the Armed Forces includes but is not limited to
the following categories: a. selective mobilization — Expansion of the active Armed
Forces resulting from action by Congress and/or the President to mobilize Reserve
Component units, Individual Ready Reservists, and the resources needed for their
support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an
enemy attack. b. partial mobilization — Expansion of the active Armed Forces
resulting from action by Congress (up to full mobilization) or by the President (not
more than 1,000,000 for not more than 24 consecutive months) to mobilize Ready
Reserve Component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their
support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an
external threat to the national security. c. full mobilization — Expansion of the active
Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize all
Reserve Component units and individuals in the existing approved force structure, as
well as all retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet
the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to
the national security. Reserve personnel can be placed on active duty for the duration of
the emergency plus six months. d. total mobilization — Expansion of the active
Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or
generate additional units or personnel beyond the existing force structure, and the
resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other
national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. Also called
MOB. (JP 4-05)

mobilization base — The total of all resources available, or that can be made available, to
meet foreseeable wartime needs. Such resources include the manpower and materiel
resources and services required for the support of essential military, civilian, and
survival activities, as well as the elements affecting their state of readiness, such as (but
not limited to) the following: manning levels, state of training, modernization of
equipment, mobilization materiel reserves and facilities, continuity of government, civil
defense plans and preparedness measures, psychological preparedness of the people,
international agreements, planning with industry, dispersion, and standby legislation
and controls.

mobilization exercise — An exercise involving, either completely or in part, the
implementation of mobilization plans.

mobilization reserves — Not to be used. See war reserves.

mobilization site — The designated location where a Reserve Component unit or individual
mobilizes or moves after mobilization for further processing, training, and employment.
This differs from a mobilization station in that it is not necessarily a military
installation. See also mobilization; mobilization station; Reserve Components.
(JP 4-05)

mobilization staff officer — The action officer assigned the principle responsibility or
additional duties related to Reserve Component mobilization actions. See also
mobilization; Reserve Components. (JP 4-05.1)

mobilization station — The designated military installation to which a Reserve Component
unit or individual is moved for further processing, organizing, equipping, training, and
employment and from which the unit or individual may move to an aerial port of
embarkation or seaport of embarkation. See also mobilization; mobilization site;
Reserve Components. (JP 4-05)

mock-up — (*) A model, built to scale, of a machine, apparatus, or weapon, used in
studying the construction of, and in testing a new development, or in teaching
personnel how to operate the actual machine, apparatus, or weapon.

mode (identification, friend or foe) — The number or letter referring to the specific pulse
spacing of the signals transmitted by an interrogator or transponder.

mode of transport — The various modes used for a movement. For each mode, there are
several means of transport. They are: a. inland surface transportation (rail, road, and
inland waterway); b. sea transport (coastal and ocean); c. air transportation; and d.

modernization — See military capability.

Modernized Integrated Database — The national level repository for the general military
intelligence available to the entire Department of Defense Intelligence Information
System community and, through Global Command and Control System integrated
imagery and intelligence, to tactical units. This data is maintained and updated by the
Defense Intelligence Agency. Commands and Services are delegated responsibility to
maintain their portion of the database. Also called MIDB. See also database.
(JP 3-13.1)

modified combined obstacle overlay — A joint intelligence preparation of the battlespace
product used to portray the effects of each battlespace dimension on military
operations. It normally depicts militarily significant aspects of the battlespace
environment, such as obstacles restricting military movement, key geography, and
military objectives. Also called MCOO. See also joint intelligence preparation of a
battlespace. (JP 2-01.3)

moment — (*) In air transport, the weight of a load multiplied by its distance from a
reference point in the aircraft.

monitoring — (*) 1. The act of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording
the emissions of one’s own or allied forces for the purposes of maintaining and
improving procedural standards and security, or for reference, as applicable. 2. The act
of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording of enemy emissions for
intelligence purposes. 3. The act of detecting the presence of radiation and the
measurement thereof with radiation measuring instruments. Also called radiological

monitoring service — The general surveillance of known air traffic movements by
reference to a radar scope presentation or other means, for the purpose of passing
advisory information concerning conflicting traffic or providing navigational
assistance. Direct supervision or control is not exercised, nor is positive separation

moored — Lying with both anchors down or tied to a pier, anchor buoy, or mooring buoy.
(JP 4-01.6)

moored mine — A contact or influence-operated mine of positive buoyancy held below
the surface by a mooring attached to a sinker or anchor on the bottom. See also
mine. (JP 3-15)

mopping up — (*) The liquidation of remnants of enemy resistance in an area that has
been surrounded or isolated, or through which other units have passed without
eliminating all active resistance.

mortar — A muzzle-loading, indirect fire weapon with either a rifled or smooth bore. It
usually has a shorter range than a howitzer, employs a higher angle of fire, and has a
tube with a length of 10 to 20 calibers. See also gun; howitzer.

mortuary affairs — Covers the search for, recovery, identification, preparation, and
disposition of remains of persons for whom the Services are responsible by status and
Executive Order. See also joint mortuary affairs office. (JP 4-06)

mosaic — (*) An assembly of overlapping photographs that have been matched to form a
continuous photographic representation of a portion of the surface of the Earth. See
also controlled mosaic; semi-controlled mosaic.

most capable Service or agency — The organization that is best suited to provide common
supply commodity or logistic service support within a specific joint operation. In this
context, “best suited” could mean the Service or agency that has required or readily
available resources and/or expertise. The most capable Service may or may not be the
dominant user in any particular operation. See also agency. (JP 4-07)

motorized unit — (*) A unit equipped with complete motor transportation that enables all
of its personnel, weapons, and equipment to be moved at the same time without
assistance from other sources.

mounting — (*) 1. All preparations made in areas designated for the purpose, in
anticipation of an operation. It includes the assembly in the mounting area, preparation
and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and
subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable. 2. (DOD only) A
carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed.

mounting area — A general locality where assigned forces of an amphibious or airborne
operation, with their equipment, are assembled, prepared, and loaded in shipping and/or
aircraft preparatory to an assault. See also embarkation area.

movement control — 1. The planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and
cargo movements over lines of communications. 2. An organization responsible for the
planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines
of communications. Also called movement control center or MCC. See also
consumer logistics; line of communications; movement control center; movement
control teams; non-unit-related cargo; non-unit-related personnel. (JP 3-10)

movement control center — See movement control.

movement control post — (*) The post through which the control of movement is
exercised by the commander, depending on operational requirements.

movement control team — Movement control teams (MCTs) are Army units that
decentralize the execution of movement responsibilities on an area basis or at key
transportation nodes. The mission of the MCTs is movement control of personnel and
materiel as well as the coordination of bulk fuel and water transportation at pipeline and
production take-off points. To this end, the MCTs contribute to the development of
procedures, documents, and practices to facilitate local movement. Their role is to
expedite, coordinate, and monitor traffic moving through the transportation system.
MCTs are tailored to meet the anticipated workload. Other Service movement
requirements that exceed organic capability will be requested through the Army MCTs.
The movement control center is the higher headquarters for the MCTs and is located at
Corps level. Also called MCT. (JP 4-01.7)

movement credit — (*) The allocation granted to one or more vehicles in order to move
over a controlled route in a fixed time according to movement instructions.

movement directive — The basic document published by the Department of the Army or
the Department of the Air Force (or jointly) that authorizes a command to take action to
move a designated unit from one location to another.

movement group — Those ships and embarked units that load out and proceed to
rendezvous in the objective area. (JP 3-02.2)

movement order — An order issued by a commander covering the details for a move of the

movement phase — In amphibious operations, the period during which various elements of
the amphibious force move from points of embarkation to the operational area. This
move may be via rehearsal, staging, or rendezvous areas. The movement phase is
completed when the various elements of the amphibious force arrive at their assigned
positions in the operational area. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation.
(JP 3-02)

movement plan — In amphibious operations, the naval plan providing for the movement of
the amphibious task force to the objective area. It includes information and instructions
concerning departure of ships from embarkation points, the passage at sea, and the
approach to and arrival in assigned positions in the objective area. See also
amphibious operation; amphibious task force. (JP 3-02)

movement report control center — The controlling agency for the entire movement report
system. It has available all information relative to the movements of naval ships and
other ships under naval control.

movement report system — A system established to collect and make available to certain
commands vital information on the status, location, and movement of flag commands,
commissioned fleet units, and ships under operational control of the Navy.

movement requirement — A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the
transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified

movement restriction — (*) A restriction temporarily placed on traffic into and/or out of
areas to permit clearance of or prevention of congestion.

movement schedule — A schedule developed to monitor or track a separate entity, whether
it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset. The schedule
reflects the assignment of specific lift resources (such as an aircraft or ship) that will be
used to move the personnel and cargo included in a specific movement increment.
Arrival and departure times at ports of embarkation, etc., are detailed to show a flow
and workload at each location. Movement schedules are detailed enough to support
plan implementation.

movement table — (*) A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move. When
necessary it will be qualified by the words road, rail, sea, air, etc., to signify the type of
movement. Normally issued as an annex to a movement order or instruction.

movement to contact — A form of the offense designed to develop the situation and to
establish or regain contact. See also meeting engagement; reconnaissance in force.

moving havens — Restricted areas established to provide a measure of security to
submarines and surface ships in transit through areas in which the existing attack
restrictions would be inadequate to prevent attack by friendly forces. See also moving
submarine haven; moving surface ship haven.

moving map display — (*) A display in which a symbol, representing the vehicle, remains
stationary while the map or chart image moves beneath the symbol so that the display
simulates the horizontal movement of the vehicle in which it is installed. Occasionally
the design of the display is such that the map or chart image remains stationary while
the symbol moves across a screen. See also projected map display.

moving mine — (*) The collective description of mines, such as drifting, oscillating,
creeping, mobile, rising, homing, and bouquet mines.

moving submarine haven — An area established by a submarine operating authority to
prevent mutual interference among friendly submarines, or between friendly
submarines and ships operating with towed bodies or arrays. See also moving havens.

moving surface ship haven — Established by surface ship notices, a moving surface ship
haven will normally be a circle with a specified radius centered on the estimated
position of the ship or the guide of a group of ships. See also moving havens.

moving target indicator — (*) A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in
motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the
output of a suitable memory circuit.

multichannel — Pertaining to communications, usually full duplex, on more than one
channel simultaneously. Multichannel transmission may be accomplished by either
time-, frequency-, code-, and phase-division multiplexing or space diversity.

multi-modal — (*) In transport operations, a term applied to the movement of passengers
and cargo by more than one method of transport.

multinational — Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more nations or
coalition partners. See also alliance; coalition. (JP 5-0)

multinational doctrine — Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of
two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by
participating nations. See also doctrine; joint doctrine; multi-Service doctrine.

multinational exercise — An exercise containing one or more non-US participating
force(s). See also exercise.

multinational force — A force composed of military elements of nations who have formed
an alliance or coalition for some specific purpose. Also called MNF. See also
multinational force commander; multinational operations. (JP 1)

multinational force commander — A general term applied to a commander who exercises
command authority over a military force composed of elements from two or more
nations. The extent of the multinational force commander’s command authority is
determined by the participating nations. Also called MNFC. See also multinational
force. (JP 3-16)

multinational integrated logistic support — Two or more nations agree to provide logistic
assets to a multinational force under operational control of a multinational force
commander for the logistic support of a multinational force. See also logistic support;
multinational integrated logistic support unit; multinational logistics;
multinational logistic support arrangement. (JP 4-08)

multinational integrated logistic support unit — An organization resulting when two or
more nations agree to provide logistics assets to a multinational logistic force under the
operational control of a multinational commander for the logistic support of a
multinational force. Also called MILU. See also logistic support; multinational;
multinational integrated logistic support. (JP 4-08)

multinational logistics — Any coordinated logistic activity involving two or more nations
supporting a multinational force conducting military operations under the auspices of
an alliance or coalition, including those conducted under United Nations mandate.
Multinational logistics includes activities involving both logistic units provided by
participating nations designated for use by the multinational force commander as well
as a variety of multinational logistic support arrangements that may be developed and
used by participating forces. See also logistics; multinational; multinational logistic
support arrangement. (JP 4-08)

multinational logistic support arrangement — Any arrangement involving two or more
nations that facilitates the logistic support of a force (either the forces of the countries
participating in the arrangement or other countries). See also logistic support;
multinational; multinational logistics. (JP 4-08)

multinational operations — A collective term to describe military actions conducted by
forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or
alliance. See also alliance; coalition; coalition action. (JP 3-16)

multinational staff — A staff composed of personnel of two or more nations within the
structure of a coalition or alliance. See also integrated staff; joint staff; parallel staff.

multinational warfare — Warfare conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually
undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. (JP 3-05)

multiple drill — See multiple unit training assemblies.

multiple inactive duty training periods — Two scheduled inactive duty training periods
performed in one calendar day, each at least four hours in duration. No more than two
inactive duty training periods may be performed in one day.

multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle — A reentry vehicle carried by a
delivery system that can place one or more reentry vehicles over each of several
separate targets. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle;
reentry vehicle.

multiple reentry vehicle — The reentry vehicle of a delivery system that places more than
one reentry vehicle over an individual target. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle;
multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

multiple unit training assemblies — Two or more unit training assemblies executed
during one or more consecutive days. No more than two unit training assemblies may
be performed in one calendar day.

multiple warning phenomenology — Deriving warning information from two or more
systems observing separate physical phenomena associated with the same events to
attain high credibility while being less susceptible to false reports or spoofing.

multiplexer — A device that combines (multiplexes) multiple input signals (information
channels) into an aggregate signal (common channel) for transmission.

multi-point refueling system — A limited number of KC-135 aircraft can be equipped
with external wing-mounted pods to conduct drogue air refueling, while still
maintaining boom air refueling capability on the same mission. This dual refueling
capability makes KC-135s with multi-point refueling systems ideal for use as ground
alert aircraft. Also called MPRS. See also air refueling. (JP 3-17)

multispectral imagery — The image of an object obtained simultaneously in a number of
discrete spectral bands. Also called MSI. (JP 3-14)

multi-spot ship — Those ships certified to have two or more adjacent landing areas. See
also spot. (JP 3-04)

munition — (*) A complete device charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics,
initiating composition, or nuclear, biological, or chemical material for use in military
operations, including demolitions. Certain suitably modified munitions can be used for
training, ceremonial, or nonoperational purposes. Also called ammunition. (Note: In
common usage, “munitions” [plural] can be military weapons, ammunition, and
equipment.) See also explosive ordnance. (JP 3-11)

munitions effectiveness assessment — Conducted concurrently and interactively with
battle damage assessment, the assessment of the military force applied in terms of the
weapon system and munitions effectiveness to determine and recommend any required
changes to the methodology, tactics, weapon system, munitions, fusing, and/or weapon
delivery parameters to increase force effectiveness. Munitions effectiveness
assessment is primarily the responsibility of operations with required inputs and
coordination from the intelligence community. Also called MEA. See also
assessment; battle damage assessment; munition. (JP 2-01)

mutual support — (*) That support which units render each other against an enemy,
because of their assigned tasks, their position relative to each other and to the enemy,
and their inherent capabilities. See also close support; direct support; support.
(JP 3-31)

muzzle brake — A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon that utilizes escaping gas to
reduce recoil.

muzzle compensator — A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon that utilizes escaping
gas to control muzzle movement.

muzzle velocity — The velocity of a projectile with respect to the muzzle at the instant the
projectile leaves the weapon.



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