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Military Terms and Definitions

identification — 1. The process of determining the friendly or hostile character of an
unknown detected contact. 2. In arms control, the process of determining which nation
is responsible for the detected violations of any arms control measure. 3. In ground
combat operations, discrimination between recognizable objects as being friendly or
enemy, or the name that belongs to the object as a member of a class. Also called ID.

identification, friend or foe — A device that emits a signal positively identifying it as a
friendly. Also called IFF. See also air defense.

identification friend or foe personal identifier — The discrete identification friend or foe
code assigned to a particular aircraft, ship, or other vehicle for identification by
electronic means.

identification, friend or foe/selective identification feature procedures — The directives
that govern the use of identification, friend or foe selective identification feature
equipment. See also identification, friend or foe.

identification maneuver — A maneuver performed for identification purposes.

igloo space — Area in an earth-covered structure of concrete and/or steel designed for the
storage of ammunition and explosives. See also storage.

ignition system — See firing system.

image format — Actual size of negative, scope, or other medium on which image is

image motion compensation — (*) Movement intentionally imparted to film at such a rate
as to compensate for the forward motion of an air or space vehicle when photographing
ground objects.

imagery — A likeness or presentation of any natural or man-made feature or related object
or activity, and the positional data acquired at the same time the likeness or
representation was acquired, including: products produced by space-based national
intelligence reconnaissance systems; and likeness and presentations produced by
satellites, airborne platforms, unmanned aerial vehicles, or other similar means (except
that such term does not include handheld or clandestine photography taken by or on
behalf of human intelligence collection organizations). (JP 2-03)

imagery collateral — (*) The reference materials which support the imagery interpretation

imagery correlation — (*) The mutual relationship between the different signatures on
imagery from different types of sensors in terms of position and the physical
characteristics signified.

imagery data recording — (*) The transposing of information relating to the airborne
vehicle and sensor, such as speed, height, tilt, position, and time, to the matrix block on
the sensor record at the moment of image acquisition.

imagery exploitation — (*) The cycle of processing and printing imagery to the positive or
negative state, assembly into imagery packs, identification, interpretation, mensuration,
information extraction, the preparation of reports, and the dissemination of information.

imagery intelligence — The technical, geographic, and intelligence information derived
through the interpretation or analysis of imagery and collateral materials. Also called
IMINT. See also intelligence; photographic intelligence. (JP 2-03)

imagery interpretation — (*) 1. The process of location, recognition, identification, and
description of objects, activities, and terrain represented on imagery. 2. The extraction
of information from photographs or other recorded images. Also called photographic

imagery interpretation key — (*) Any diagram, chart, table, list, or set of examples, etc.,
which is used to aid imagery interpreters in the rapid identification of objects visible on

imagery pack — (*) An assembly of the records from different imagery sensors covering a
common target area.

imitative communications deception — That division of deception involving the
introduction of false or misleading but plausible communications into target systems
that mimics or imitates the targeted communications. See also deception; target
system. (JP 3-13.1)

imitative electromagnetic deception — See electromagnetic deception.
immediate airlift requests — Requests generated that, due to their time-critical nature,
cannot be filled by a planned mission. (JP 3-17)

immediate air support — (*) Air support to meet specific requests which arise during the
course of a battle and which by their nature cannot be planned in advance. See also air
support. (JP 3-09.3)

immediate decontamination — Decontamination carried out by individuals immediately
upon becoming contaminated to save lives, minimize casualties, and limit the spread of
contamination. This may include decontamination of some personal clothing and/or
equipment. Also called emergency decontamination. See also contamination;
decontamination. (JP 3-11)

immediate destination — (*) The next destination of a ship or convoy, irrespective of
whether or not onward routing instructions have been issued to it.

immediately vital cargo — (*) A cargo already loaded which the consignee country
regards as immediately vital for the prosecution of the war or for national survival,
notwithstanding the risk to the ship. If the cargo is carried in a ship of another nation,
then that nation must agree to the delivery of the cargo. The use of this term is limited
to the period of implementation of the shipping movement policy.

immediate message — A category of precedence reserved for messages relating to
situations that gravely affect the security of national and multinational forces or
populace and that require immediate delivery to the addressee(s). See also precedence.

immediate mission request — A request for an air strike on a target that, by its nature,
could not be identified sufficiently in advance to permit detailed mission coordination
and planning. See also preplanned mission request.

immediate nuclear support — Nuclear support to meet specific requests that arise during
the course of a battle, and that by their nature, cannot be planned in advance. See also
nuclear support; preplanned nuclear support.

immediate operational readiness — Those operations directly related to the assumption of
an alert or quick-reaction posture. Typical operations include strip alert, airborne alert
and/or indoctrination, no-notice launch of an alert force, and the maintenance of
missiles in an alert configuration. See also nuclear weapon exercise; nuclear weapon

immediate response — Any form of immediate action taken to save lives, prevent human
suffering, or mitigate great property damage under imminently serious conditions when
time does not permit approval from a higher authority. (JP 3-28)

impact action fuze — (*) A fuze that is set in action by the striking of a projectile or bomb
against an object, e.g., percussion fuze, contact fuze. Also called direct action fuze.

impact area — An area having designated boundaries within the limits of which all
ordnance will detonate or impact.

impact pressure — (*) The difference between pitot pressure and static pressure.

implementation — Procedures governing the mobilization of the force and the deployment,
employment, and sustainment of military operations in response to execution orders
issued by the Secretary of Defense. Also called IMP.

implied task — In the context of joint operation planning, a task derived during mission
analysis that an organization must perform or prepare to perform to accomplish a
specified task or the mission, but which is not stated in the higher headquarters order.
See also essential task; specified task. (JP 5-0)

implosion weapon — A weapon in which a quantity of fissionable material, less than a
critical mass at ordinary pressure, has its volume suddenly reduced by compression (a
step accomplished by using chemical explosives) so that it becomes supercritical,
producing a nuclear explosion.

imprest fund — A cash fund of a fixed amount established through an advance of funds,
without appropriation change, to an authorized imprest fund cashier to effect immediate
cash payments of relatively small amounts for authorized purchases of supplies and
nonpersonal services.

imprest funds — Funds issued by Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) to a
military organization to purchase beginning inventory for the operation of an AAFES
imprest fund activity. See also Army and Air Force Exchange Service imprest fund
activity. (JP 1-0)

imprint — (*) Brief note in the margin of a map giving all or some of the following: date
of publication, printing, name of publisher, printer, place of publication, number of
copies printed, and related information.

improved conventional munitions — Munitions characterized by the delivery of two or
more antipersonnel or antimateriel and/or antiarmor submunitions by a warhead or

improvised early resupply — (*) The onward movement of commodities which are
available on land and which can be readily loaded into ships.

improvised explosive device — (*) A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner
incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and
designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. It may incorporate military stores,
but is normally devised from nonmilitary components. Also called IED. (JP 3-07.2)

improvised mine — A mine fabricated from available materials at or near its point of use.

inactive aircraft inventory — Aircraft in storage or bailment and/or government- furnished
equipment on loan or lease outside of the Defense establishment or otherwise not
available to the Military Services.

inactive duty training — Authorized training performed by a member of a Reserve
Component not on active duty or active duty for training and consisting of regularly
scheduled unit training assemblies, additional training assemblies, periods of
appropriate duty or equivalent training, and any special additional duties authorized for
Reserve Component personnel by the Secretary concerned, and performed by them in
connection with the prescribed activities of the organization in which they are assigned
with or without pay. Does not include work or study associated with correspondence
courses. Also called IDT. See also active duty for training.

Inactive National Guard — Army National Guard personnel in an inactive status not in the
Selected Reserve who are attached to a specific National Guard unit but do not
participate in training activities. Upon mobilization, they will mobilize with their units.
In order for these personnel to remain members of the Inactive National Guard, they
must muster once a year with their assigned unit. Like the Individual Ready Reserve,
all members of the Inactive National Guard have legal, contractual obligations.
Members of the Inactive National Guard may not train for retirement credit or pay and
are not eligible for promotion. Also called ING. See also Individual Ready Reserve;
Selected Reserve. (JP 4-05)

inactive status — Status of reserve members on an inactive status list of a Reserve
Component or assigned to the Inactive Army National Guard. Those in an inactive
status may not train for points or pay, and may not be considered for promotion.

inbound traffic — Traffic originating in an area outside the continental United States
destined for or moving in the general direction of the continental United States.

incapacitating agent — A chemical agent, which produces temporary disabling conditions
which (unlike those caused by riot control agents) can be physical or mental and persist
for hours or days after exposure to the agent has ceased. (JP 3-11)

incapacitating illness or injury — The casualty status of a person (a) whose illness or
injury requires hospitalization but medical authority does not classify as very seriously
ill or injured; or (b) seriously ill or injured and the illness or injury makes the person
physically or mentally unable to communicate with the next of kin. Also called III.
See also casualty status.

incident — 1. In information operations, an assessed event of attempted entry, unauthorized
entry, or an information attack on an automated information system. It includes
unauthorized probing and browsing; disruption or denial of service; altered or
destroyed input, processing, storage, or output of information; or changes to
information system hardware, firmware, or software characteristics with or without the
users’ knowledge, instruction, or intent. 2. An occurrence, caused by either human
action or natural phenomena, that requires action to prevent or minimize loss of life or
damage to property and/or natural resources. See also information operations. (JP 3-28)

incident classification — See search and rescue incident classification.

incident command post — The field location at which the primary tactical-level on-scene
incident command functions are performed. It may be collocated with the incident base
or other incident facilities and is normally identified by a green rotating or flashing
light. Also called ICP. See also antiterrorism. (JP 3-28)

incident command system — A standardized on-scene emergency management construct
designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. Consists of facilities,
equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications established for this purpose.
Also called ICS. (JP 3-28)

incident management — A national comprehensive approach to preventing, preparing for,
responding to, and recovering from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other
emergencies. Incident management includes measures and activities performed at the
local, state, and national levels and includes both crisis and consequence management
activities. (JP 3-28)

incident of national significance — An actual or potential high-impact event that requires a
coordinated and effective response by and appropriate combination of Federal, state,
local, tribal, nongovernmental, and/or private-sector entities in order to save lives and
minimize damage, and provide the basis for long-term community recovery and
mitigation activities. (JP 3-41)

incidents — Brief clashes or other military disturbances generally of a transitory nature and
not involving protracted hostilities.

in-company — Two or more units proceeding together under the command of a designated

inclination angle — See pitch angle.

incremental costs — Costs which are additional costs to the Service appropriations that
would not have been incurred absent support of the contingency operation. See also
financial management. (JP 1-06)

indefinite call sign — (*) A call sign which does not represent a specific facility,
command, authority, activity, or unit, but which may represent any one or any group of
these. See also call sign.

independent — (*) A merchant ship under naval control sailed singly and unescorted by a
warship. See also military independent.

independent ejection system — See ejection systems.

independent government estimate — The government’s estimate of the resources and
projected cost of the resources a contractor will incur in the performance of the
contract. Also called IGE. (JP 4-10)

independent mine — (*) A mine which is not controlled by the user after laying. See also

independent review — In computer modeling and simulation, a review performed by
competent, objective reviewers who are independent of the model developer.
Independent review includes either (a) a detailed verification and/or validation of the
model or simulation; or (b) an examination of the verification and/or validation
performed by the model or simulation developer. See also configuration
management; validation; verification.

indicated airspeed — See airspeed.

indications — In intelligence usage, information in various degrees of evaluation, all of
which bear on the intention of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a course of action.
(JP 2-0)

indications and warning — Those intelligence activities intended to detect and report timesensitive
intelligence information on foreign developments that could involve a threat
to the United States or allied and/or coalition military, political, or economic interests
or to US citizens abroad. It includes forewarning of hostile actions or intentions against
the United States, its activities, overseas forces, or allied and/or coalition nations. Also
called I&W. See also information; intelligence. (JP 2-0)

indicator — In intelligence usage, an item of information which reflects the intention or
capability of an adversary to adopt or reject a course of action. (JP 2-0)
indigenous populations and institutions — A generic term used to describe the civilian
construct of an operational area to include its populations (legal citizens, legal and
illegal immigrants, and all categories of dislocated civilians), governmental, tribal,
commercial, and private organizations and entities. Also called IPI. (JP 3-57)

indirect fire — Fire delivered on a target that is not itself used as a point of aim for the
weapons or the director.

indirect laying — (*) Aiming a gun either by sighting at a fixed object, called the aiming
point, instead of the target or by using a means of pointing other than a sight, such as a
gun director, when the target cannot be seen from the gun position.

individual equipment — Referring to method of use: signifies personal clothing and
equipment, for the personal use of the individual. See also equipment.

individual mobilization augmentee — An individual reservist attending drills who
receives training and is preassigned to an Active Component organization, a Selective
Service System, or a Federal Emergency Management Agency billet that must be filled
on, or shortly after, mobilization. Individual mobilization augmentees train on a parttime
basis with these organizations to prepare for mobilization. Inactive duty training
for individual mobilization augmentees is decided by component policy and can vary
from 0 to 48 drills a year. Also called IMA.

individual mobilization augmentee detachment — An administrative unit organized to
train and manage individual mobilization augmentees.

individual protective equipment — In chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear
operations, the personal clothing and equipment required to protect an individual from
chemical, biological, and radiological hazards and some nuclear hazards. Also called
IPE. (JP 3-11)

Individual Ready Reserve — A manpower pool consisting of individuals who have had
some training or who have served previously in the Active Component or in the
Selected Reserve, and may have some period of their military service obligation
remaining. Members may voluntarily participate in training for retirement points and
promotion with or without pay. Also called IRR. See also Selected Reserve. (JP 4-05)

individual reserves — The supplies carried on a soldier, animal, or vehicle for individual
use in an emergency. See also reserve supplies.

individual self-defense — The individual’s inherent right of self-defense is an element of
unit self-defense. It is critical that individuals are aware of and train to the principle
that they have the authority to use all available means and to take all appropriate action
to defend themselves and other US personnel in their vicinity. In the implementation of
these standing and other rules of engagement (ROE), commanders have the obligation
to ensure that the individuals within that commander’s unit understand when and how
they may use force in self-defense. While individuals assigned to a unit respond to a
hostile act or hostile intent in the exercise of self-defense, their use of force must
remain consistent with lawful orders of their superiors, the rules contained in joint
doctrine, and other applicable ROE promulgated for the mission or area of

individual sponsored dependent — A dependent not entitled to travel to the overseas
command at Government expense or who enters the command without endorsement of
the appropriate overseas commander.

induced environment — Any manmade or equipment-made environment that directly or
indirectly affects the performance of man or materiel.

induced radiation — (*) Radiation produced as a result of exposure to radioactive
materials, particularly the capture of neutrons. See also contamination; initial
radiation; residual radiation; residual radioactivity.

induction circuit — (*) In naval mine warfare, a circuit actuated by the rate of change in a
magnetic field due to the movement of the ship or the changing current in the sweep.

industrial mobilization — The transformation of industry from its peacetime activity to the
industrial program necessary to support the national military objectives. It includes the
mobilization of materials, labor, capital, production facilities, and contributory items
and services essential to the industrial program. See also mobilization.

industrial preparedness — The state of preparedness of industry to produce essential
materiel to support the national military objectives.

industrial preparedness program — Plans, actions, or measures for the transformation of
the industrial base, both government-owned and civilian-owned, from its peacetime
activity to the emergency program necessary to support the national military objectives.
It includes industrial preparedness measures such as modernization, expansion, and
preservation of the production facilities and contributory items and services for
planning with industry. Also called IPP.

industrial readiness — See industrial preparedness.

inert filling — (*) A prepared non-explosive filling of the same weight as the explosive

inertial guidance — A guidance system designed to project a missile over a predetermined
path, wherein the path of the missile is adjusted after launching by devices wholly
within the missile and independent of outside information. The system measures and
converts accelerations experienced to distance traveled in a certain direction.

inertial navigation system — (*) A self-contained navigation system using inertial
detectors, which automatically provides vehicle position, heading, and velocity. Also
called INS.

inert mine — (*) A mine or replica of a mine incapable of producing an explosion.

in extremis — A situation of such exceptional urgency that immediate action must be taken
to minimize imminent loss of life or catastrophic degradation of the political or military
situation. (JP 3-05)

infiltration — 1. The movement through or into an area or territory occupied by either
friendly or enemy troops or organizations. The movement is made, either by small
groups or by individuals, at extended or irregular intervals. When used in connection
with the enemy, it implies that contact is avoided. 2. In intelligence usage, placing an
agent or other person in a target area in hostile territory. Usually involves crossing a
frontier or other guarded line. Methods of infiltration are: black (clandestine); grey
(through legal crossing point but under false documentation); and white (legal).
(JP 3-05.1)

inflammable cargo — Cargo such as drummed gasoline and oils.

inflight phase — The flight of a missile or space vehicle from launch to detonation or

inflight report — The transmission from the airborne system of information obtained both
at the target and en route.

influence field — (*) The distribution in space of the influence of a ship or minesweeping

influence mine — A mine actuated by the effect of a target on some physical condition in
the vicinity of the mine or on radiations emanating from the mine. See also mine.
(JP 3-15)

influence release sinker — A sinker which holds a moored or rising mine at the sea-bed
and releases it when actuated by a suitable ship influence.

influence sweep — A sweep designed to produce an influence similar to that produced by a
ship and thus actuate mines.

information — 1. Facts, data, or instructions in any medium or form. 2. The meaning that
a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in their
representation. (JP 3-13.1)

information assurance — Measures that protect and defend information and information
systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and
nonrepudiation. This includes providing for restoration of information systems by
incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities. Also called IA. See also
information; information operations; information system. (JP 3-13)

information-based processes — Processes that collect, analyze, and disseminate
information using any medium or form. These processes may be stand-alone processes
or sub-processes that, taken together, comprise a larger system or systems of processes.
See also information system. (JP 3-13)

information box — (*) A space on an annotated overlay, mosaic, map, etc., which is used
for identification, reference, and scale information.

information environment — The aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that
collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. See also information system.
(JP 3-13)

information management — The function of managing an organization’s information
resources by the handling of knowledge acquired by one or many different individuals
and organizations in a way that optimizes access by all who have a share in that
knowledge or a right to that knowledge. (JP 3-0)

information operations — The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic
warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception,
and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to
influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making
while protecting our own. Also called IO. See also computer network operations;
electronic warfare; military deception; operations security; psychological
operations. (JP 3-13)

information report — Report used to forward raw information collected to fulfill
intelligence requirements.

information requirements — In intelligence usage, those items of information regarding
the adversary and other relevant aspects of the operational environment that need to be
collected and processed in order to meet the intelligence requirements of a commander.
See also priority intelligence requirement. (JP 2-0)

information resources — Information and related resources, such as personnel, equipment,
and information technology. See also information. (JP 3-35)

information security — The protection of information and information systems against
unauthorized access or modification of information, whether in storage, processing, or
transit, and against denial of service to authorized users. Also called INFOSEC. See
also information system. (JP 3-13)

information superiority — The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect,
process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or
denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. See also information operations.
(JP 3-13)

information system — The entire infrastructure, organization, personnel, and components
for the collection, processing, storage, transmission, display, dissemination, and
disposition of information. See also information; information operations. (JP 3-13)

infrared film — Film carrying an emulsion especially sensitive to “near-infrared.” Used to
photograph through haze because of the penetrating power of infrared light and in
camouflage detection to distinguish between living vegetation and dead vegetation or
artificial green pigment.

infrared imagery — That imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic
radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared position of the
electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 0.72 to 1,000 microns).

infrared linescan system — (*) A passive airborne infrared recording system which scans
across the ground beneath the flight path, adding successive lines to the record as the
vehicle advances along the flight path.
As Amended Through 17 March 2009
264 JP 1-02

infrared photography — Photography employing an optical system and direct image
recording on film sensitive to near-infrared wavelength (infrared film). (Note: Not to
be confused with “infrared imagery.”)

infrared pointer — A low power laser device operating in the near infrared light spectrum
that is visible with light amplifying night vision devices. Also called IR pointer.
(JP 3-09.3)

infrared radiation — Radiation emitted or reflected in the infrared portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum.

infrastructure — All building and permanent installations necessary for the support,
redeployment, and military forces operations (e.g., barracks, headquarters, airfields,
communications, facilities, stores, port installations, and maintenance stations). See
also bilateral infrastructure; common infrastructure; national infrastructure.
(JP 3-35)

initial active duty for training — Basic military training and technical skill training
required for all accessions. For nonprior service male enlistees between the ages of 18
1/2 and 26, initial active duty for training shall be not less than 12 weeks and start
insofar as practical within 270 days after enlistment. Initial active duty for training for
all other enlistees and inductees shall be prescribed by the Secretary concerned and start
insofar as practical within 360 days of entry into the Service, except in time of war or
national emergency declared by Congress or the President when basic training shall be
not less than 12 weeks or its equivalent. Reservists may not be assigned to active duty
on land outside the United States or its territories and possessions until basic training
has been completed.

initial assessment — An assessment that provides a basic determination of the viability of
the infiltration and exfiltration portion of a proposed special operations forces mission.
Also called IA. (JP 3-05.1)

initial contact report — See contact report.

initial draft plan — (*) A plan which has been drafted and coordinated by the originating
headquarters, and is ready for external coordination with other military headquarters. It
cannot be directly implemented by the issuing commander, but it may form the basis
for an operation order issued by the commander in the event of an emergency. See also
coordinated draft plan; draft plan; final plan; operation plan.

initial early resupply — The onward movement of ships which are already loaded with
cargoes which will serve the requirements after D-day. This includes such shipping
deployed from major ports/major water terminals and subsequently dispersed to
secondary ports/alternate water terminals and anchorages.

initial entry into Military Service — Entry for the first time into military status (active
duty or reserve) by induction, enlistment, or appointment in any Service of the Armed
Forces of the United States. Appointment may be as a commissioned or warrant
officer; as a cadet or midshipman at the Service academy of one of the armed forces; or
as a midshipman, US Naval Reserve, for US Naval Reserve Officers’ Training Corps
training at a civilian institution.

initial issues — The issue of materiel not previously furnished to an individual or
organization, including new inductees and newly activated organizations, and the issue
of newly authorized items of materiel.

initial operational capability — The first attainment of the capability to employ effectively
a weapon, item of equipment, or system of approved specific characteristics that is
manned or operated by an adequately trained, equipped, and supported military unit or
force. Also called IOC.

initial path sweeping — (*) In naval mine warfare, initial sweeping to clear a path through
a mined area dangerous to the following mine sweepers. See also precursor

initial photo interpretation report — A first-phase interpretation report, subsequent to the
Joint Tactical Air Reconnaissance/Surveillance Mission Report, presenting the results
of the initial readout of new imagery to answer the specific requirements for which the
mission was requested.

initial point — 1. The first point at which a moving target is located on a plotting board. 2.
A well-defined point, easily distinguishable visually and/or electronically, used as a
starting point for the bomb run to the target. 3. airborne — A point close to the
landing area where serials (troop carrier air formations) make final alterations in course
to pass over individual drop or landing zones. 4. helicopter — An air control point in
the vicinity of the landing zone from which individual flights of helicopters are directed
to their prescribed landing sites. 5. Any designated place at which a column or
element thereof is formed by the successive arrival of its various subdivisions, and
comes under the control of the commander ordering the move. Also called IP. See
also target approach point. (JP 3-09.1)

initial programmed interpretation report — (*) A standardized imagery interpretation
report providing information on programmed mission objectives or other vital
intelligence information which can be readily identified near these objectives, and
which has not been reported elsewhere. Also called IPIR.

initial provisioning — The process of determining the range and quantity of items (i.e.,
spares and repair parts, special tools, test equipment, and support equipment) required
to support and maintain an item for an initial period of service. Its phases include the
identification of items of supply, the establishment of data for catalog, technical
manual, and allowance list preparation, and the preparation of instructions to assure
delivery of necessary support items with related end articles.

initial radiation — (*) The radiation, essentially neutrons and gamma rays, resulting from
a nuclear burst and emitted from the fireball within one minute after burst. See also
induced radiation; residual radiation. (JP 3-11)

initial reception point — In personnel recovery, a secure area or facility under friendly
control where initial reception of recovered isolated personnel can safely take place.
This point is ideally associated with a medical treatment facility, can safeguard
recovered isolated personnel for up to 48 hours, and is where the reintegration process
begins. (JP 3-50)

initial reserves — In amphibious operations, those supplies that normally are unloaded
immediately following the assault waves; usually the supplies for the use of the beach
organization, battalion landing teams, and other elements of regimental combat teams
for the purpose of initiating and sustaining combat until higher supply installations are
established. See also reserve supplies.

initial response force — The first unit, usually military police, on the scene of a terrorist
incident. See also antiterrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

initial unloading period — (*) In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore
movement in which unloading is primarily tactical in character and must be instantly
responsive to landing force requirements. All elements intended to land during this
period are serialized. See also general unloading period.

initiating directive — An order to a subordinate commander to conduct military operations
as directed. It is issued by the unified commander, subunified commander, Service
component commander, or joint force commander delegated overall responsibility for
the operation. (JP 3-18)

injury — A term comprising such conditions as fractures, wounds, sprains, strains,
dislocations, concussions, and compressions. In addition, it includes conditions
resulting from extremes of temperature or prolonged exposure. Acute poisonings
(except those due to contaminated food) resulting from exposure to a toxic or
poisonous substance are also classed as injuries. See also casualty; wounded.

inland petroleum distribution system —A multi-product system consisting of both
commercially available and military standard petroleum equipment that can be
assembled by military personnel and, when assembled into an integrated petroleum
distribution system, provides the military with the capability required to support an
operational force with bulk fuels. The inland petroleum distribution system is
comprised of three primary subsystems: tactical petroleum terminal, pipeline segments,
and pump stations. Engineer units install the pipeline and construct the pump stations;
Quartermaster units install the theater petroleum terminal and operate the total system
when it is completed. Also called IPDS. (JP 4-03)

inland search and rescue region — The inland areas of the continental United States,
except waters under the jurisdiction of the United States. See also search and rescue

inner transport area — In amphibious operations, an area as close to the landing beach as
depth of water, navigational hazards, boat traffic, and enemy action permit, to which
transports may move to expedite unloading. See also outer transport area; transport

innocent passage — The right of all ships to engage in continuous and expeditious surface
passage through the territorial sea and archipelagic waters of foreign coastal states in a
manner not prejudicial to its peace, good order, or security. Passage includes stopping
and anchoring, but only if incidental to ordinary navigation or necessary by force
majeure or distress, or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships, or
aircraft in danger or distress.

in-place force — 1. A North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-assigned force that, in
peacetime, is principally stationed in the designated combat zone of the NATO
command to which it is committed. 2. Force within a combatant commander’s area of
responsibility and under the combatant commander’s combatant command (command

inshore patrol — (*) A naval defense patrol operating generally within a naval defense
coastal area and comprising all elements of harbor defenses, the coastal lookout system,
patrol craft supporting bases, aircraft, and Coast Guard stations.

inspection — In arms control, physical process of determining compliance with arms
control measures.

installation — A grouping of facilities, located in the same vicinity, which support
particular functions. Installations may be elements of a base. See also base; base

installation commander — The individual responsible for all operations performed by an
installation. See also antiterrorism; base commander; installation. (JP 3-07.2)

installation complex — In the Air Force, a combination of land and facilities comprised of
a main installation and its noncontiguous properties (auxiliary air fields, annexes, and
missile fields) that provide direct support to or are supported by that installation.
Installation complexes may comprise two or more properties, e.g., a major installation,
a minor installation, or a support site, each with its associated annex(es) or support
property(ies). See also minor installation.

instructional mine — (*) An inert mine used for instruction and normally sectionalized for
this purpose. See also inert mine.

instrument approach procedure — (*) A series of predetermined maneuvers for the
orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of
the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made
visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated. (JP 3-04)

instrument meteorological conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of
visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling; less than minimums specified for visual
meteorological conditions. Also called IMC. See also visual meteorological
conditions. (JP 3-04)

instruments of national power — All of the means available to the government in its
pursuit of national objectives. They are expressed as diplomatic, economic,
informational and military. (JP 1)

in support — (*) An expression used to denote the task of providing artillery supporting
fire to a formation or unit. Liaison and observation are not normally provided. See
also at priority call; direct support.

in support of — Assisting or protecting another formation, unit, or organization while
remaining under original control. (JP 1)

insurgency — (*) An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted
government through use of subversion and armed conflict. (JP 3-05)

insurgent — Member of a political party who rebels against established leadership. See
also antiterrorism; counterinsurgency; insurgency. (JP 3-07.2)

Integrated Consumable Item Support — A decision support system that takes timephased
force and deployment data (i.e., Department of Defense deployment plans) and
calculates the ability of the Defense Logistics Agency, the warehousing unit of the
Department of Defense, to support those plans. Integrated Consumable Item Support
can calculate for the planned deployment supply/demand curves for over two million
individual items stocked by the Defense Logistics Agency in support of deployment.
Integrated Consumable Item Support allows planners to identify critical end items and
anticipated shortfalls in the Defense Logistics Agency inventories. Integrated
Consumable Item Support provides materiel readiness information for Defense
Logistics Agency managed items to Defense Logistics Agency management, to all
Services, and to the Joint Staff, to be used as a piece of the larger wartime logistic
picture, which ultimately is used to assess total readiness and sustainability for
deliberately planned contingencies. The goals and objectives of Integrated Consumable
Item Support are to know the “war stoppers,” know the weapons systems affected, and
know when the Defense Logistics Agency will run out of stock. Also called ICIS.
(JP 4-03)

integrated fire control system — A system that performs the functions of target
acquisition, tracking, data computation, and engagement control, primarily using
electronic means and assisted by electromechanical devices.

integrated logistic support — A composite of all the support considerations necessary to
assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. It is an
integral part of all other aspects of system acquisition and operation. Also called ILS.

integrated materiel management — The exercise of total Department of Defense-level
management responsibility for a federal supply group or class, commodity, or item for
a single agency. It normally includes computation of requirements, funding, budgeting,
storing, issuing, cataloging, standardizing, and procuring functions. Also called IMM.
See also materiel; materiel management. (JP 4-07)

integrated planning — In amphibious operations, the planning accomplished by
commanders and staffs of corresponding echelons from parallel chains of command
within the amphibious task force. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task
force. (JP 3-02)

integrated priority list — A list of a combatant commander’s highest priority
requirements, prioritized across Service and functional lines, defining shortfalls in key
programs that, in the judgment of the combatant commander, adversely affect the
capability of the combatant commander’s forces to accomplish their assigned mission.
The integrated priority list provides the combatant commander’s recommendations for
programming funds in the planning, programming, and budgeting system process.
Also called IPL.

integrated staff — (*) A staff in which one officer only is appointed to each post on the
establishment of the headquarters, irrespective of nationality and Service. See also
multinational staff; joint staff; parallel staff; staff.

integrated tactical warning — See tactical warning.

integrated warfare — The conduct of military operations in any combat environment
wherein opposing forces employ non-conventional weapons in combination with
conventional weapons.

integration — (*) 1. (DOD only) In force protection, the synchronized transfer of units
into an operational commander's force prior to mission execution. 2. (DOD only) The
arrangement of military forces and their actions to create a force that operates by
engaging as a whole. 3. In photography, a process by which the average radar picture
seen on several scans of the time base may be obtained on a print, or the process by
which several photographic images are combined into a single image. See also force
protection. (JP 1)

intelligence — The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration,
evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign
nations, hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential
operations. The term is also applied to the activity which results in the product and to
the organizations engaged in such activity. See also acoustic intelligence; all-source
intelligence; basic intelligence; civil defense intelligence; combat intelligence;
communications intelligence; critical intelligence; current intelligence;
departmental intelligence; domestic intelligence; electronic intelligence; electrooptical
intelligence; foreign intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals
intelligence; general military intelligence; human resources intelligence; imagery
intelligence; joint intelligence; laser intelligence; measurement and signature
intelligence; medical intelligence; merchant intelligence; military intelligence;
national intelligence; nuclear intelligence; open-source intelligence; operational
intelligence; photographic intelligence; political intelligence; radar intelligence;
radiation intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence; security intelligence;
strategic intelligence; tactical intelligence; target intelligence; technical
intelligence; technical operational intelligence; terrain intelligence; unintentional
radiation intelligence. (JP 2-0)

intelligence annex — A supporting document of an operation plan or order that provides
detailed information on the enemy situation, assignment of intelligence tasks, and
intelligence administrative procedures.

intelligence collection plan — A plan for gathering information from all available sources
to meet an intelligence requirement. Specifically, a logical plan for transforming the
essential elements of information into orders or requests to sources within a required
time limit. See also intelligence process.

intelligence community — All departments or agencies of a government that are concerned
with intelligence activity, either in an oversight, managerial, support, or participatory
role. Also called IC. (JP 2-01.2)

intelligence contingency funds — Appropriated funds to be used for intelligence activities
when the use of other funds is not applicable or would either jeopardize or impede the
mission of the intelligence unit.

intelligence database — The sum of holdings of intelligence data and finished intelligence
products at a given organization.

intelligence data handling systems — Information systems that process and manipulate
raw information and intelligence data as required. They are characterized by the
application of general purpose computers, peripheral equipment, and automated storage
and retrieval equipment for documents and photographs. While automation is a
distinguishing characteristic of intelligence data handling systems, individual system
components may be either automated or manually operated. Also called IDHS.

intelligence discipline — A well defined area of intelligence planning, collection,
processing, exploitation, analysis, and reporting using a specific category of technical
or human resources. There are seven major disciplines: human intelligence, geospatial
intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, open-source
intelligence, technical intelligence, and counterintelligence. See also
counterintelligence; human intelligence; imagery intelligence; intelligence;
measurement and signature intelligence; open-source intelligence; signals
intelligence; technical intelligence. (JP 2-0)

intelligence estimate — The appraisal, expressed in writing or orally, of available
intelligence relating to a specific situation or condition with a view to determining the
courses of action open to the enemy or adversary and the order of probability of their
adoption. (JP 2-0)

intelligence federation — A formal agreement in which a combatant command joint
intelligence center receives preplanned intelligence support from other joint intelligence
centers, Service intelligence organizations, Reserve organizations, and national
agencies during crisis or contingency operations. (JP 2-01)

intelligence gathering — Collection of intelligence on other units or forces by own units or

intelligence information report — The primary vehicle used to provide human intelligence
information to the consumer. It utilizes a message format structure that supports
automated data entry into intelligence community databases. Also called IIR. (JP 2-01.2)

intelligence interrogation — The systematic process of using approved interrogation
approaches to question a captured or detained person to obtain reliable information to
satisfy intelligence requirements, consistent with applicable law. (JP 2-01.2)

intelligence journal — A chronological log of intelligence activities covering a stated
period, usually 24 hours. It is an index of reports and messages that have been received
and transmitted, important events that have occurred, and actions taken. The journal is
a permanent and official record.

intelligence operations — The variety of intelligence and counterintelligence tasks that are
carried out by various intelligence organizations and activities within the intelligence
process. Intelligence operations include planning and direction, collection, processing
and exploitation, analysis and production, dissemination and integration, and evaluation
and feedback. See also analysis and production; collection; dissemination and
integration; evaluation and feedback; planning and direction; processing and
exploitation. (JP 2-01)

intelligence preparation of the battlespace — An analytical methodology employed to
reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, environment, and terrain for all types of
operations. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace builds an extensive database for
each potential area in which a unit may be required to operate. The database is then
analyzed in detail to determine the impact of the enemy, environment, and terrain on
operations and presents it in graphic form. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace is
a continuing process. Also called IPB. See also joint intelligence preparation of the
battlespace. (JP 2-0)

intelligence process — The process by which information is converted into intelligence and
made available to users. The process consists of six interrelated intelligence operations:
planning and direction, collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production,
dissemination and integration, and evaluation and feedback. See also analysis and
production; collection; dissemination and integration; evaluation and feedback;
intelligence; planning and direction; processing and exploitation. (JP 2-01)

intelligence-related activities — Those activities outside the consolidated defense
intelligence program that: respond to operational commanders’ tasking for
time-sensitive information on foreign entities; respond to national intelligence
community tasking of systems whose primary mission is support to operating forces;
train personnel for intelligence duties; provide an intelligence reserve; or are devoted to
research and development of intelligence or related capabilities. (Specifically excluded
are programs that are so closely integrated with a weapon system that their primary
function is to provide immediate-use targeting data.)

intelligence report — A specific report of information, usually on a single item, made at
any level of command in tactical operations and disseminated as rapidly as possible in
keeping with the timeliness of the information. Also called INTREP.

intelligence reporting — The preparation and conveyance of information by any means.
More commonly, the term is restricted to reports as they are prepared by the collector
and as they are transmitted by the collector to the latter’s headquarters and by this
component of the intelligence structure to one or more intelligence-producing
components. Thus, even in this limited sense, reporting embraces both collection and
dissemination. The term is applied to normal and specialist intelligence reports. See
also normal intelligence reports; specialist intelligence report.

intelligence requirement — 1. Any subject, general or specific, upon which there is a need
for the collection of information, or the production of intelligence. 2. A requirement
for intelligence to fill a gap in the command’s knowledge or understanding of the
operational environment or threat forces. See also battlespace; intelligence; priority
intelligence requirement. (JP 2-0)

intelligence source — The means or system that can be used to observe and record
information relating to the condition, situation, or activities of a targeted location,
organization, or individual. An intelligence source can be people, documents,
equipment, or technical sensors. See also intelligence; source. (JP 2-0)

intelligence subject code — A system of subject and area references to index the
information contained in intelligence reports as required by a general intelligence
document reference service.

intelligence summary — A specific report providing a summary of items of intelligence at
frequent intervals. Also called INTSUM. See also intelligence.

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance — An activity that synchronizes and
integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation,
and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an
integrated intelligence and operations function. Also called ISR. See also
intelligence; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance visualization;
reconnaissance; surveillance. (JP 2-01)

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance visualization — The capability to
graphically display the current and future locations of intelligence, surveillance, and
reconnaissance sensors, their projected platform tracks, vulnerability to threat
capabilities and meteorological and oceanographic phenomena, fields of regard, tasked
collection targets, and products to provide a basis for dynamic re-tasking and timesensitive
decision making. Also called ISR visualization. See also intelligence;
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; reconnaissance; surveillance.
(JP 2-01)

intelligence system — Any formal or informal system to manage data gathering, to obtain
and process the data, to interpret the data, and to provide reasoned judgments to
decision makers as a basis for action. The term is not limited to intelligence
organizations or services but includes any system, in all its parts, that accomplishes the
listed tasks.

intensity factor — (*) A multiplying factor used in planning activities to evaluate the
foreseeable intensity or the specific nature of an operation in a given area for a given
period of time. It is applied to the standard day of supply in order to calculate the
combat day of supply.

intensity mine circuit — (*) A circuit whose actuation is dependent on the field strength
reaching a level differing by some pre-set minimum from that experienced by the mine
when no ships are in the vicinity.

intensive management — The continuous process by which the supported and supporting
commanders, the Services, transportation component commands, and appropriate
Defense agencies ensure that movement data in the Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System time-phased force and deployment data for the initial days of
deployment and/or mobilization are current to support immediate execution.

intention — An aim or design (as distinct from capability) to execute a specified course of
action. (JP 2-01)

interagency — United States Government agencies and departments, including the
Department of Defense. See also interagency coordination. (JP 3-08)

interagency coordination — Within the context of Department of Defense involvement,
the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged
US Government agencies for the purpose of achieving an objective. (JP 3-0)

interceptor — (*) A manned aircraft utilized for identification and/or engagement of
airborne objects.

intercept point — (*) The point to which an airborne vehicle is vectored or guided to
complete an interception.

intercept receiver — (*) A receiver designed to detect and provide visual and/or aural
indication of electromagnetic emissions occurring within the particular portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum to which it is tuned.

inter-chart relationship diagram — (*) A diagram on a map or chart showing names
and/or numbers of adjacent sheets in the same (or related) series. Also called index to
adjoining sheets. See also map index.

interconnection — The linking together of interoperable systems.

intercount dormant period — (*) In naval mine warfare, the period after the actuation of
a ship counter before it is ready to receive another actuation.

interdepartmental or agency support — Provision of logistic and/or administrative
support in services or materiel by one or more Military Services to one or more
departments or agencies of the United States Government (other than military) with or
without reimbursement. See also international logistic support; inter-Service
support; support.

interdepartmental intelligence — Integrated departmental intelligence that is required by
departments and agencies of the United States Government for the execution of their
missions but which transcends the exclusive competence of a single department or
agency to produce.

interdiction — 1. An action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s military surface
capability before it can be used effectively against friendly forces, or to otherwise
achieve objectives. 2. In support of law enforcement, activities conducted to divert,
disrupt, delay, intercept, board, detain, or destroy, as appropriate, vessels, vehicles,
aircraft, people, and cargo. See also air interdiction. (JP 3-03)

interface — A boundary or point common to two or more similar or dissimilar command
and control systems, sub-systems, or other entities against which or at which necessary
information flow takes place.

intergovernmental organization — An organization created by a formal agreement (e.g. a
treaty) between two or more governments. It may be established on a global, regional,
or functional basis for wide-ranging or narrowly defined purposes. Formed to protect
and promote national interests shared by member states. Examples include the United
Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the African Union. Also called IGO.
(JP 3-08)

interim overhaul — An availability for the accomplishment of necessary repairs and urgent
alterations at a naval shipyard or other shore-based repair activity, normally scheduled
halfway through the established regular overhaul cycle.

inter-look dormant period — (*) In mine warfare, the time interval after each look in a
multi-look mine, during which the firing mechanism will not register.

intermediate approach — (*) That part of an instrument approach procedure in which
aircraft configuration, speed, and positioning adjustments are made. It blends the initial
approach segment into the final approach segment. It begins at the intermediate fix or
point and ends at the final approach fix or point.

Intermediate Force Planning Level — The force level established during Planning Force
development to depict the buildup from the Current Force to the Planning Force. The
Intermediate Force Planning Level is insufficient to carry out strategy with a reasonable
assurance of success and consequently cannot be referred to as the Planning Force. See
also current force; force; Programmed Forces.

intermediate maintenance (field) — Maintenance that is the responsibility of and
performed by designated maintenance activities for direct support of using
organizations. Its phases normally consist of: a. calibration, repair, or replacement of
damaged or unserviceable parts, components, or assemblies; b. the emergency
manufacture of nonavailable parts; and c. providing technical assistance to using

intermediate marker (land mine warfare) — (*) A marker, natural, artificial or specially
installed, which is used as a point of reference between the landmark and the minefield.

intermediate objective — (*) In land warfare, an area or feature between the line of
departure and an objective which must be seized and/or held.

intermediate-range bomber aircraft — A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius
of between 1,000 to 2,500 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

intermediate staging base — A tailorable, temporary location used for staging forces,
sustainment and/or extraction into and out of an operational area. Also called ISB. See
also base; staging base. (JP 3-35)

intermittent arming device — (*) A device included in a mine so that it will be armed
only at set times.

intermittent illumination — (*) A type of fire in which illuminating projectiles are fired at
irregular intervals.

intermodal — Type of international freight system that permits transshipping among sea,
highway, rail, and air modes of transportation through use of American National
Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization containers,
line-haul assets, and handling equipment. See also International Organization for
Standardization. (JP 4-01.7)

intermodal support equipment — Fixed and deployable assets required to assist container
operations throughout the intermodal container system. Included are straddle cranes,
chassis, rough terrain container handlers, container cranes and spreader bars. See also
intermodal. (JP 4-01.7)

intermodal systems — Specialized transportation facilities, assets, and handling procedures
designed to create a seamless transportation system by combining multimodal
operations and facilities during the shipment of cargo. See also intermodal;
transportation system. (JP 4-01)

internal audience — US military members and civilian employees and their immediate
families. One of the audiences comprising the concept of “publics.” See also external

internal defense and development — The full range of measures taken by a nation to
promote its growth and to protect itself from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency.
It focuses on building viable institutions (political, economic, social, and military) that
respond to the needs of society. Also called IDAD. See also foreign internal defense.
(JP 3-07.1)

internal information — See command information.

internally displaced person — Any person who has been forced or obliged to flee or to
leave their home or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to
avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of
human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an
internationally recognized state border. (JP 3-29)

internal radiation — (*) Nuclear radiation (alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation)
resulting from radioactive substances in the body.

internal security — The state of law and order prevailing within a nation.

internal waters — All waters, other than lawfully claimed archipelagic waters, landward of
the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured. Archipelagic states may also
delimit internal waters consistent with the 1982 convention on the law of the sea. All
states have complete sovereignty over their internal waters.

international arms control organization — An appropriately constituted organization
established to supervise and verify the implementation of arms control measures.

International Atomic Time — The time reference scale established by the Bureau
International des Poids et Mesures on the basis of atomic clock readings from various
laboratories around the world. Also called TAI.

international call sign — (*) A call sign assigned in accordance with the provisions of the
International Telecommunications Union to identify a radio station. The nationality of
the radio station is identified by the first or the first two characters. (When used in
visual signaling, international call signs are referred to as “signal letters.”) See also call

International Convention for Safe Containers — A convention held in Geneva,
Switzerland, on 2 Dec 1972, which resulted in setting standard safety requirements for
containers moving in international transport. These requirements were ratified by the
United States on 3 January 1978. Also called CSC. (JP 4-01.7)

international cooperative logistics — (*) Cooperation and mutual support in the field of
logistics through the coordination of policies, plans, procedures, development activities,
and the common supply and exchange of goods and services arranged on the basis of
bilateral and multilateral agreements with appropriate cost reimbursement provisions.

international date line — (*) The line coinciding approximately with the anti-meridian of
Greenwich, modified to avoid certain habitable land. In crossing this line there is a date
change of one day. Also called date line.

international identification code — (*) In railway terminology, a code which identifies a
military train from point of origin to final destination. The code consists of a series of
figures, letters, or symbols indicating the priority, country of origin, day of departure,
national identification code number, and country of destination of the train.

international loading gauge (GIC) — (*) The loading gauge upon which international
railway agreements are based. A load whose dimensions fall within the limits of this
gauge may move without restriction on most of the railways of Continental Western
Europe. GIC is an abbreviation for “gabarit international de chargement,” formerly
called PPI.

international logistics — The negotiating, planning, and implementation of supporting
logistic arrangements between nations, their forces, and agencies. It includes
furnishing logistic support (major end items, materiel, and/or services) to, or receiving
logistic support from, one or more friendly foreign governments, international
organizations, or military forces, with or without reimbursement. It also includes
planning and actions related to the intermeshing of a significant element, activity, or
component of the military logistic systems or procedures of the United States with
those of one or more foreign governments, international organizations, or military
forces on a temporary or permanent basis. It includes planning and actions related to
the utilization of United States logistic policies, systems, and/or procedures to meet
requirements of one or more foreign governments, international organizations, or

international logistic support — The provision of military logistic support by one
participating nation to one or more participating nations, either with or without
reimbursement. See also interdepartmental or agency support; inter-Service
support; support.

international military education and training — Formal or informal instruction provided
to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by
offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors.
Instruction may include correspondence courses; technical, educational, or
informational publications; and media of all kinds. Also called IMET. See also
United States Military Service funded foreign training.

international narcotics activities — Those activities outside the United States which
produce, transfer, or sell narcotics or other substances controlled in accordance with
Title 21, “Food and Drugs” — United States Code, sections 811 and 812. (JP 3-07.4)

International Organization for Standardization — A worldwide federation of national
standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. The International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental organization, established
to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a
view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing
cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic
activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements which are published as
international standards. Also called ISO.

interned — See missing.

interocular distance — The distance between the centers of rotation of the eyeballs of an
individual or between the oculars of optical instruments.

interoperability — (*) 1. The ability to operate in synergy in the execution of assigned
tasks. 2. (DOD only) The condition achieved among communications-electronics
systems or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or
services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users.
The degree of interoperability should be defined when referring to specific cases.
(JP 3-32)

interoperation — The use of interoperable systems, units, or forces.

interpretability — (*) Suitability of imagery for interpretation with respect to answering
adequately requirements on a given type of target in terms of quality and scale. a.
poor — Imagery is unsuitable for interpretation to answer adequately requirements on
a given type of target. b. fair — Imagery is suitable for interpretation to answer
requirements on a given type of target but with only average detail. c. good —
Imagery is suitable for interpretation to answer requirements on a given type of target
in considerable detail. d. excellent — Imagery is suitable for interpretation to answer
requirements on a given type of target in complete detail.

interpretation — A part of the analysis and production phase in the intelligence process in
which the significance of information is judged in relation to the current body of
knowledge. See also intelligence process. (JP 2-01)

interrogation (intelligence) — Systematic effort to procure information by direct
questioning of a person under the control of the questioner.

inter-Service education — Military education provided by one Service to members of
another Service. See also military education; military training.

inter-Service, intragovernmental agreements — Formal long-term or operational specific
support agreements between Services, Department of Defense (DOD), and/or non-
DOD agencies governed by DOD Instruction 4000.19, Interservice and
Intragovernmental Support. These agreements, normally developed at the Service
Secretariat and governmental agency director level, document funding and
reimbursement procedures as well as standards of support between the supplying and
receiving Service or agencies. Inter-Service, intragovernmental agreements, while
binding Service level agreements, do not connote DOD-level executive agent
responsibilities. See also inter-Service support. (JP 4-07)

inter-Service support — Action by one Military Service or element thereof to provide
logistic and/or administrative support to another Military Service or element thereof.
Such action can be recurring or nonrecurring in character on an installation, area, or
worldwide basis. See also interdepartmental or agency support; international
logistic support; support. (JP 4-0)

inter-Service training — Military training provided by one Service to members of another
Service. See also military education; military training.

intertheater — Between theaters or between the continental United States and theaters.
See also intertheater traffic.

intertheater airlift — The common-user airlift linking theaters to the continental United
States and to other theaters as well as the airlift within the continental United States.
The majority of these air mobility assets is assigned to the Commander, United States
Transportation Command. Because of the intertheater ranges usually involved,
intertheater airlift is normally conducted by the heavy, longer range, intercontinental
airlift assets but may be augmented with shorter range aircraft when required.
Formerly referred to as “strategic airlift.” See also intratheater airlift. (JP 3-17)

intertheater patient movement — Moving patients between, into, and out of the different
theaters of the geographic combatant commands and into the continental United States
or another supporting theater. See also en route care; evacuation; intratheater
patient movement; patient. (JP 4-02)

intertheater traffic — Traffic between theaters exclusive of that between the continental
United States and theaters.

interval — (*) 1. The space between adjacent groups of ships or boats measured in any
direction between the corresponding ships or boats in each group. 2. The space
between adjacent individuals, ground vehicles, or units in a formation that are placed
side by side, measured abreast. 3. The space between adjacent aircraft measured from
front to rear in units of time or distance. 4. The time lapse between photographic
exposures. 5. At battery right or left, an interval ordered in seconds is the time
between one gun firing and the next gun firing. Five seconds is the standard interval.
6. At rounds of fire for effect the interval is the time in seconds between successive
rounds from each gun.

intervention — Action taken to divert a unit or force from its track, flight path, or mission.

interview (intelligence) — To gather information from a person who is aware that
information is being given although there is ignorance of the true connection and
purposes of the interviewer. Generally overt unless the collector is other than purported
to be.

intracoastal sealift — Shipping used primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo
along a coast or into river ports to support operations within a given area.

intransit aeromedical evacuation facility — A medical facility, on or in the vicinity of an
air base, that provides limited medical care for intransit patients awaiting air
transportation. This type of medical facility is provided to obtain effective utilization of
transport airlift within operating schedules. It includes “remain overnight” facilities,
intransit facilities at aerial ports of embarkation and debarkation, and casualty staging
facilities in an overseas combat area. See also aeromedical evacuation unit.

intransit inventory — That materiel in the military distribution system that is in the process
of movement from point of receipt from procurement and production (either
contractor’s plant or first destination, depending upon point of delivery) and between
points of storage and distribution.

intransit stock — See intransit inventory.

in-transit visibility — The ability to track the identity, status, and location of Department of
Defense units, and non-unit cargo (excluding bulk petroleum, oils, and lubricants) and
passengers; patients; and personal property from origin to consignee or destination
across the range of military operations. Also called ITV. See also Global
Transportation Network. (JP 4-01.2)

intratheater — Within a theater. See also intratheater traffic.

intratheater airlift — Airlift conducted within a theater. Assets assigned to a geographic
combatant commander or attached to a subordinate joint force commander normally
conduct intratheater airlift operations. Intratheater airlift provides air movement and
delivery of personnel and equipment directly into objective areas through air landing,
airdrop, extraction, or other delivery techniques as well as the air logistic support of all
theater forces, including those engaged in combat operations, to meet specific theater
objectives and requirements. During large-scale operations, US Transportation
Command assets may be tasked to augment intratheater airlift operations, and may be
temporarily attached to a joint force commander. Formerly referred to as theater airlift.
See also intertheater airlift. (JP 3-17)

intratheater patient movement — Moving patients within the theater of a combatant
command or in the continental United States. See also en route care; evacuation;
intertheater patient movement; patient. (JP 4-02)

intratheater traffic — Traffic within a theater.

intruder — An individual, unit, or weapon system, in or near an operational or exercise
area, which presents the threat of intelligence gathering or disruptive activity.

intrusion — Movement of a unit or force within another nation’s specified operational area
outside of territorial seas and territorial airspace for surveillance or intelligence
gathering in time of peace or tension.

invasion currency — See military currency.

inventory control — (*) That phase of military logistics which includes managing,
cataloging, requirements determinations, procurement, distribution, overhaul, and
disposal of materiel. Also called inventory management; materiel control; materiel
management; supply management.

inventory control point — An organizational unit or activity within a Department of
Defense supply system that is assigned the primary responsibility for the materiel
management of a group of items either for a particular Service or for the Defense
Department as a whole. Materiel inventory management includes cataloging direction,
requirements computation, procurement direction, distribution management, disposal
direction and, generally, rebuild direction. Also called ICP.

inventory management — See inventory control.

inventory managers — See inventory control point.

investment costs — Those program costs required beyond the development phase to
introduce into operational use a new capability; to procure initial, additional, or
replacement equipment for operational forces; or to provide for major modifications of
an existing capability. They exclude research, development, test and evaluation,
military personnel, and operation and maintenance appropriation costs.

ionizing radiation — Particulate (alpha, beta, and neutron) and electromagnetic (X-ray and
gamma) radiation of sufficient energy to displace electrons from atoms, producing ions.
(JP 3-11)

ionosphere — That part of the atmosphere, extending from about 70 to 500 kilometers, in
which ions and free electrons exist in sufficient quantities to reflect electromagnetic

IR pointer — See infrared pointer. (JP 3-09.3)

irregular forces — Armed individuals or groups who are not members of the regular armed
forces, police, or other internal security forces.

irregular outer edge — (*) In land mine warfare, short mine rows or strips laid in an
irregular manner in front of a minefield facing the enemy to deceive the enemy as to the
type or extent of the minefield. Generally, the irregular outer edge will only be used in
minefields with buried mines.

irregular warfare — A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy
and influence over the relevant population(s). Irregular warfare favors indirect and
asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other
capacities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will. Also called IW.
(JP 1)

isodose rate line — See dose rate contour line.

isolated personnel — US military, Department of Defense civilians and contractor
personnel (and others designated by the President or Secretary of Defense) who are
separated from their unit (as an individual or a group) while participating in a US
sponsored military activity or mission and are, or may be, in a situation where they
must survive, evade, resist, or escape. See also combat search and rescue; search
and rescue. (JP 3-50)

isolated personnel report — A Department of Defense Form (DD 1833) containing
information designed to facilitate the identification and authentication of an isolated
person by a recovery force. Also called ISOPREP. See also authentication; evader;
recovery force. (JP 3-50)

issue control group — A detachment that operates the staging area, consisting of holding
areas and loading areas, in an operation. See also staging area. (JP 4-01.6)

issue priority designator — See priority designator.

item manager — An individual within the organization of an inventory control point or
other such organization assigned management responsibility for one or more specific
items of materiel.



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